23 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George

Chapter 10 - Language 1/28/2012 8:07:00 PM LANGUAGE – flexible systems that use symbols to express many meanings o One conclusion that has emerged from the studies of primates is that true verbal ability is a social behaviour o We begin learning languages in the earliest stages of life and our language develops as we reach adulthood o Language plays a crucial role in our day-to-day communication, but we also use language as a tool in our remembering and thinking o We often encode info. In memory verbally o In addition, we can extend our long term memory for info. By writing notes and consulting them later o Language enables us to think about very complex and abstract issues by encoding them as words and then manipulating the words according to logical rules o PSYCHOLINGUISTICS – a branch of psychology devoted to the study of verbal behaviour  Psycholinguists are interested on how children acquire language: how verbal behaviour develops and how children learn to peak from their interactions with adults  Also study how adults use language and how verbal abilities interact with other cognitive abilities o SPEECH AND COMPREHENSION o We can give info. To other people so that their behaviour will change in a way that benefits them (or us) PERCEPTION OF SPEECH o Speech does not come to us as a series of individual words, we must extract the words from a stream of speech RECOGNITION OF SPEECH SOUNDS: o The auditory system performs a formidably complex task in enabling us to recognize speech sounds o The auditory system recognizes the patterns underlying speech rather than just the sounds themselves o Using fMRI, some regions of the brain responded more when people heard human vocalizations than when they heard only natural sounds o Regions in which there was a large difference were located in the temporal lobe, on the auditory cortex o The auditory area on the left hemisphere showed a greater contrast in response o When it comes to analyzing the detailed information of speech, the left hemisphere plays a larger role PHONEME – the minimum unit of sound that conveys meaning in a particular language, such as /p/  The element of speech – the smallest units of sound that allow us to distinguish the meaning of a spoken word o VOICE-ONSET TIME – the delay between the initial sound of a consonant (such as the puffing o sound of the phoneme /p/) and the onset of vibration of the vocal cords o voicing is the vibration of your vocal cords o phonemic discrimination begin with auditory processing of the sensory differences, and this occurs in both hemispheres Chapter 11 – Intelligence and Thinking 1/28/2012 8:07:00 PM INTELLIGENCE – a person’s ability to learn and remember information, to recognize concepts  and their relations, and to apply information to their own behaviour in an  adaptive way o the study of intelligence is dominated by 3 approaches: 1. differential approach – an approach to the study of intelligence that involves the creation of tests that identify and measure individual differences in people’s knowledge and abilities to solve problems 2. developmental approach – an approach to the study of intelligence based on the way children learn to perceive, manipulate, and think about the world 3. information processing approach – an approach to the study of intelligence that focuses on the types of skills people use to think and to solve problems THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE o people vary in abilities to learn, use words, solve, perceive and remember o psychologists have devised intelligence tests that yield a single number – IQ tests o the fact that these tests are single scores, does not mean that intelligence is a single, general characteristic o some researchers promote the idea that some intellectual abilities are completely independent of one another o but psychologists disagree over whether specific abilities are totally independent or whether on e general factor influences all abilities SPEARMAN’S TWO FACTOR THEORY o Charles Spearman proposed that a person’s performance on a test of intellectual ability is determined by 2 factors 1. g factor (general factor)  comprised of 3 qualitative principles of cognition i. apprehension of experience ii. eduction of relations iii. eduction of correlates 2. s factor (factor specific to a particular test) EDUCTION – the process of drawing or bringing out o the correlations among various tests of intellectual ability usually range from 0.30 – 0.70 o a person’s score on a particular test depends on 2 things 1. the person’s specific ability (s) 2. his/her level of the g factor (general reasoning ability) EVIDENCE FROM FACTOR ANALYSIS FACTOR ANALYSIS – a statistical procedure that identifies common factors among groups of tests o if a group of people takes several different tests of intellectual ability o if each person’s scores on several of these tests correlate well with one another, we would conclude that the tests or subtests measure the same factor o a factor analysis determines which sets of tests form groups FACTOR LOADINGS – somewhat like correlation coefficients in that they express the degree to which a particular test is related to a particular factor o factor analysis provides clues about the nature of intelligence, but it cannot provide a theory of intelligence o a factor analysis can be informative only about tests to which it is applied o it will never reveal other important abilities that are NOT measured by the tests it is used to investigate o Cattell performed a second order factor analysis and found 2 major factors 1. Fluid intelligence (g f – relatively culture-free tasks - represents a potential ability to learn and solve problems i.e. ability to see relations/patterns 2. Crystallized intelligence (g c – tasks that require people to have info from their Culture - what a person has learned through use of fluid intelligence i.e. vocabulary, information learned in schools HORN CATTELL o Horn differs with Cattell as he cites o fluid intelligence supplies native ability evidence suggesting that both factors are o experience with language, books, school, learned but are also based to a degree on learning opportunities develop crystallize heredity intelligence o g if based on casual learning o g dcpends on g f o g ic based on cultural, school type learning o if 2 people have the same experience, the one with greater fluid intelligence will develop the greater crystalized intelligence AN INFORMATION PROCESSING THORY OF INTELLIGENCE o Sternberg has devised a triarchic theory of intelligence 1. Analytic intelligence 2. Creative intelligence 3. Practical intelligence ANALYTIC INTELLIGENCE – the mental mechanisms people use to plan and execute tasks; includes metacomponents, performance components, and knowledge acquisition components  METACOMPONENTS – the processes by which people decide the nature of an intellectual problem, select a strategy for solving it, and allocate their resources i.e. planning  PERFORMANCE COMPONENTS – processes actually used to perform the task  KNOWLEDGE ACQUISITION COMPONENT – are those that the person uses to gain new knowledge by sifting out relevant info. and integrating it with what he or she already knows CREATIVE INTELLIGENCE – the ability to deal effectively with novel situations and to solve familiar problems automatically  NOVEL TASKS - tasks that use fluid intelligence  AUTOMATED TASKS – tasks that use crystallized intelligence that involve mental processes that have become automatic PRACTICAL INTELLIGENCE – intelligence that reflects the behaviours that were subject to natural selection:  ADAPTATION – adapting to the environment  SELECTION – finding a suitable environment  SHAPING – changing the environment o These 3 aspects contribute to what Sternberg calls: o SUCCESSFUL INTELLIGENCE – the ability to effectively analyze and manage personal strengths o and weaknesses a. Analyze one’s strengths and weaknesses b. Use the strengths to greatest advantage c. Minimize the impact of weaknesses by overcoming or compensating for them NEUROPSYCHOLOGICAL THEORIES OF INTELLIGENCE o Gardner formulated a theory of multiple intelligences, rejecting the idea of a single or even a few primary types of intelligence o Gardner’s perspective:  intelligences are situated within cultures  intelligences are potentials that may or may not be activated in the individual depending on the extent to which the individual’s culture values the expressions of those potentials  each of the intelligences he identifies is the result of evolution, and has separate, unique, neuropsychological underpinnings o there are 8 intelligences that meet his criteria of distinctness and believe that there is evidence of a potential 9 intelligence AN OUTLINE OF GARDNER’S THEORY OF MULTIPLE INTELLIGENCE EXAMPLE TYPE OF DESCRIPTION ACTIVITES/PROFESSION INTELLIGENCE LOGICAL- Ability to reason logically and to Conduct systematic investigations; scientists, MATHEMATICAL process mathematical equations mathematicians VERBAL-LINGUISTIC Ability to use language, sensitivity to Learn new languages easily, write and speak meanings and sounds of words clearly; writers, lawyers, teachers VISUAL-SPATIAL Ability to understand patterns in closed Organize objects and activities in 3-dimesional or open spaces space; sculptors, architects, pilots NATURALIST Ability to understand patterns in nature Identify and categorize plants and animals, notice regularities of whether conditions; taxonomists, farmers, hunters, meteorologists BODILY-KINESTHETIC Ability to control the body precisely Use body to solve problems and create; athletes, dancers, actors, surgeons MUSICAL Ability to understand and create Composition and performance of music; musical patterns composers, lyricist, musician INTRAPERSONAL Ability to understand the self, includingPersonal integrity, strength of character; can one’s skills, emotions, thoughts and be manifested in many different life contexts, intentions but may not be obvious to outsiders INTERPERSONAL Ability to recognize differences among Leadership and interpersonal problem solving; people, to understand their emotions, politicians, mediators, psychologists intentions, and motivation o the remainder of Gardner’s intelligences generally have not been recognized in psychology as distinct facilities o i.e. we have tended not to consider skill at moving one’s body as a measure of intelligence o Gardner’s theory also has the advantage of recognizing views of intelligence held by some non-western cultures SYLLOGISM – a tool for measuring deductive logic, often found in tests of intelligence - a logical construction that contains a major, minor premise, and a conclusion. The major and minor premises are assumed to be true, and the truth of the conclusion is to be evaluated by deductive reasoning o Scribner visited 2 tribes and found that they gave answers that Westerners would consider wrong o This does not mean that they were not able to reason logically o They simply approached problems differently o We cannot measure the intellectual ability of people in other cultures against our own standards o Social and cultural attitudes toward what constitutes intelligence may change accordingly **p.334 for interim summary INTELLIGENCE TESTING FROM MANDARINS TO GALTON o Humans have been aware of individual differences in abilities since our species first evolved o Sir Francis Galton was the most important early investigator of individual difference in ability (Charles Darwin’s cousin) o Galton observed that there were family differences in ability and concluded that intellectual abilities were heritable o Galton established the Anthropometric (“human measuring) Laboratory o He tested more than 9000 people on 17 variables such as height, weight, muscular strength, and ability to perform sensory discriminations o Galton outlined the logic of a measure he called correlation CORRELATION – the degree to which variability in one measure is related to variability in another o From this analysis Pearson derived the correlation coefficient (r) used today to assess the degree of statistical relation between variables INTELLIGENCE TESTS o Gilbert proposed that you could measure intelligence simply by placing a ruler perpendicular against your face  If forehead recedes ruler = weak in reasoning and deductive facilities  If forehead and chin project over the vertical = highly developed reasoning power, great will power THE BINET-SIMON SCALE o Binet disagreed with Galton’s conception of human intelligence o He suggested that a group of simple sensory tests could not adequately determine a person’s intelligence o Instead they would have to measure a variety of psychological abilities i.e. imagery, attention, comprehension, memory BINET-SIMON SCALE – an intelligence test developed by Binet and Simon; the precursor of the Stanford-Binet Scale NORMS – data concerning comparison groups that permit the score of an individual to be assessed relative to his/her peers o Binet and Simon also provided a description of the testing procedure, without this, different testers can obtain different scores from the same child o Binet revised the test to assess the intellectual abilities of both normal and challenged child, this then provided an estimate of a child’s mental age MENTAL AGE – the level of intellectual development that could be expected for an average child of a particular age ex. If a child of 8 scores as well as 10 year old children, his/her mental age is 10 THE STANFORD-BINET SCALE o Terman of Stanford translated and revised the Stanford-Binet Scale STANDFORD-BINET SCALE – an intelligence test that consists of various tasks grouped according to mental age; provides the standard measure of the intelligence quotient  i.e. identifying parts f the body, which box contains the marble, simple maze INTELLIGENCE QUOITENT (IQ) – a simplified single measure of general intelligence RATIO IQ – a formula for computing the intelligence quotient MA(mentalage) IQ= ´100 CA(chronologicalage) o the newest version of the Stanford-Binet scale replaced the ratio IQ with the deviation IQ DEVIATION IQ – compares a child’s score with those received by other children of the same chronological age ; computes intelligence quotient WECHSLER’S TESTS o Wechsler developed several popular and well-respected tests of intelligence o Goals: devised tests of intelligence that were not limited to a single performance index, not limited to verbal content, which avoided cultural and linguistic biases WECHSLER ADULT INTELLIGENCE SCALE (WAIS) – an intelligence test for adults; contains subtests divided into the categories of verbal and performance WECHSLER INTELLIGENCE SCALE FOR CHILDREN (WISC) – an intelligence test for children o WAIS has become the most popular individually administered adult intelligence test o An important advantage is that it tests verbal and performance abilities separately o Neuropsychologists often use this test, because people with brain damage score very differently on performance and verbal tests, thus the scores suggest presence of undiagnosed brain damage o Because some people have very few educational and cultural opportunities, they often do better on the performance test rather than the verbal test, but this score is useful in estimating what kind of score they might have gotten if they were raised in a more favourable environment RELIABILITY AND VALIDITY OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS o The adequacy of a measure is represented by its reliability and validity o In the case of intelligence testing, reliability is assessed by the correlation between the scores people receive o Perfect reliability is 1.0 o Acceptable reliability is at least 0.85 o The validity of an intelligence test is assessed by the strength of the correlation between test scores and the criterion CRITERION – an independent measure of a variable being assessed o There is no single criterion measure with which to assess validity, simply because there is no single definition of intelligence o Motivation and social variables will account for at least as much as raw IQ THE USE AND ABUSE OF INTELLIGENCE TESTS o Test scores usually serve as an important criterion for admission THE PROBLEM OF BIAS o critics of intelligence testing argue that the result of some tests are strongly affected by what people have learned, not just by their inherent abilities o a child from a strong educational background will be more likely to be able to answer particular questions than an equally intelligent child from a less well-educated family o the worst form of this bias occurs when entire groups of people are disadvantaged because the content of the test material is foreign to their cultural contexts THE PROBLEM OF SELF-FULFILLING PROPHECIES o there are ways in which intelligence testing can be harmful even if the tests are free of bias o there is good reason to believe that knowledge about children’s intelligence scores can set in motion self-fulfilling prophecy phenomena o the prophecy of academic failure would be fulfilled, even though the child could have been able to do well academically, given proper support o there are discouraging and demoting effects on children of learning that they have not achieved high intelligence scores IDENTIFYING SPECIFIC LEARNING NEEDS o intelligence testing does have potential benefits when it is used in accordance with Binet’s original purpose: to identify students who require special instruction o these tests can also identify exceptionally bright students who are performing poorly because they are bored with the pace of instruction or who are labeled as “troublemakers” o children with dyslexia are often frustrated by their contrast between their ability to read and their other more competent abilities  they act out , and stop trying to excel at anything  labeled as mentally retarded and placed in inappropriate educational systems (intelligence tests can be useful in this situation) o testing helps ensure remedial action and prevents mislabeling IDENTIFYING DEGREES OF MENTAL RETARDATION MENTAL RETARDATION – mental development that is substantially below normal; often caused by some form of brain damage or abnormal brain development o fortunately there are many more options today for people with intellectual deficiencies o people with mental retardation face 2 problems 1. difficulty with the usual tasks of living 2. deal with prejudice and discrimination o degrees of mental retardation are defined jointly by IQ scores PROFOUND MENTAL RETARDATION - the most severe classification, have IQ scores below 20 - require total supervision with care SEVERE MENTAL RETARDATION – have IQ scores between 20 – 34, - difficulty with speech development - can contribute from special education programs - almost always need total supervision, contribute to own care MODERATE MENTAL RETARDATION – have IQ scores between 35 – 54 - able to learn most basic life skills - can hold well-supervised jobs - can live semi independently MILD MENTAL RETARDATION - vast majority - have IQ scores between 55 – 70 - may need assistance/support from time to time, able to live independently - learn skills and responsibility needed to maintain employment **p. 340 for interim summary THE ROLES OF HEREDITY AND ENVIRONMENT THE MEANING OF HEREDITABILITY HERITABILITY – the degree to which the variability of a particular trait is a particular population of organisms is a result of genetic differences among those organisms (0 – 1.0) - the hereditability of many physical traits in most cultures are very high i.e. eye colour is affected mostly by hereditary factors and little, if at all, by the environment. Thus the hereditability of eye colour is close to 1.0 o heritability does not describe the extent to which the inherited genes are responsible for producing a particular trait o it measures the relat
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.