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Psychology Test 1.docx

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Dan Dolderman

Psychology Notes 7 Themes of Psychology 1) Psychology is an empirical science- Psychological science relies on empirical evidence as a way of knowing about how we think, feel and behave. 2) *Nature and nurture are inextricably entwined: Nature and nurture depend on each other, and their influences cannot be separated. 3) The Brian and mind are inseparable- Older dualist notions about the separation of the brain and mind have been replaced with the idea that the physical brain enables the mind, and the two cannot be separated 4) A new biological revolution is energizing research- the scientific knowledge of brain activity has been enhanced by the discovery of neurotransmitters. Mapping of the human genome has furthered genetics role in analyzing both disease and behavior. Advances in brain imaging have revealed the working brain. 5) *The Mind is adaptive- The brain has evolved to solve survival problems and adapt to environments, modern behaviors are byproducts of adaptation 6) Psychological Science crosses levels of analysis: Psychological scientist examine behavior from various analytical levels: biological (brain systems, neurochemistry, and genetics), individual (personality as well as perception and cognition, social (interpersonal behavior) and cultural (within a single culture to several) 7) We are often unaware of the multiple influences on how we think, feel and act- hundreds of studies show that subtle events in the environment can change how we think without us knowing How Did the scientific foundations of psychology develop? Experimental psychology begins with structuralism-Ideas can be broken down to elements -Psychology formed as a formal discipline in 1879, in Wilhelm Wundt’s laboratories in Germany, using techniques of introspection(a examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people to inspect and report on the content of their thoughts), scientist attempted to understand conscious experience by reducing it to its structure. Functionalism addresses the purpose of behavior, functionalist value this over structure. -James argued that the mind was more complex than the elements and therefore cannot be broken down. Example the stream of consciousness (ever changing thoughts). Functionalism- and approach to psyc concerned with the adaptive purpose of the mind. Gestalt psychology emphasizes patterns and context in learning Gestalt theory- The assertion that the whole experience is greater than the sum of its parts led to an approach emphasizing SUBJECTIVE experience of perception. Example a triangle to the view is not three lines on a paper. Two people can see an object and see different things Women contributions-Mary Calkin, Marget Washburn, Emma baker have been under acknowledged Fred Emphasized the power on unconsciousness Much of human behavior operates below the level of awareness- the unconscious. Freud used psychoanalysis to try to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious so that conflicts can be revealed. Free association sometimes got down deep issues. Although rejected, his views on mental process below awareness is highly accepted in psyc Most Behavior can be modified by reward or punishment Watson-behaviorism- Nature is all-mental states are nothing more than an illusion. Example: Animals learn to perform by results. If they get food if they do something, they will continue to do so. Cognition Affects Behavior Mental functions are important for understanding behavior, George miller started cognitive psychology which studied how people think, learn and remember. Cognitive neuroscience- the study of the mechanism that underlies thought, learning and memory Social Situations Shape Behavior Social psychology- the study of group dynamics in relation to psychological processes. Kurt Lewin-experiment to social psychology. Field theory showed the interplay between people and their environments, such as social situations. Nazis Psychological Therapy is based science Scientific research over the course of the twentieth century taught psychological scientist that there is no universal treatment for disorders, instead everyone is different. Schools of thoughts: Behaviorism, functionalism, cognitive, social , Gestalt, structuralism, psychoanalysis. How To apply Psychology  It’s the study of human behavior, so relevant in virtually every profession.  Humans naturally predict behavior but bias lead us to wrong conclusions that’s why you need psyc  Critical thinking- understanding the methods are important for evaluating research reported in popular media  Code of ethics  Affects all areas of life Chapter 2:Research Methodology The scientific method depends on theories, hypotheses and research-what-when-what-why The scientific method depends on theories, hypotheses and research Scientific inquiry relies on objective methods and empirical evidence to answer testable questions. Interconnected ideas of theories yield hypotheses which are tested through research by evaluating data. Example Focus on theory Form hypothesis Research Find data to support Report results that or refute theory embark further inquiry Correlation between TV causes violence Test Analyze Control variables violence in youth and amount of TV they watch Theories should generate hypotheses: A good theory produces a wide variety of testable hypotheses. Unexpected findings can be valuable-serendipitous discoveries sometimes occur, but only those who see their importance What Are the types of studies in psychological research Once a hypothesis has been formed there are three ways to study the data. The types of designs are descriptive, correlation, and experimental. All research involves the use of variable, which is something that can measure and changed. Researchers must define variables, by using operational definitions which identity and quantify variables so they can be measured. Example putting a scale 1-10 to something that usually has no quantity. Descriptive studies involve observing and classifying behavior Two basic types of observational studies 1) -Naturalistic observation- a passive descriptive study in which observes does not change or alter behavior. 2) -Participant Observation-A type of descriptive study in which a researcher is actively involved in the situation, something like yelling that people are being studied at a bar may lead to inaccurate results, thus its ideal to limit impact on situations Advantages: Valuable at early staged when trying to determine whether a phenomenon exist, takes place in world setting Disadvantages: Error can occur because of observer’s bias or observer changes the behavior of the witnessed. Longitudinal studies-involves observing and classifying developmental changes that occur in the same people over time, either with no intervention by the observer or with intervention by the observer-studying youth every 3 years Advantage-shows developmental changes Disadvantage- expensive, takes a long time and may lose participant interest. Cross sectional studies- when comparing two various groups and various measures-faster but unidentified variables Observer Bias-systematic errors in oberservation that occur because of an observers expectations. Example: Cultural norms- males show less emotion, if observer was to evaluate emotion he may disregard the emotion of men based on expectation Experimental expectancy effect-Actual change in behavior of people being observed is due to observer bias- example: case study with 2 rats with same genetic coding, but one class was told theirs was better, as a result it was better. Student biases cause them to give off subtle cues that changed rat’s behavior Correlation designs examine how variables are related: A correlation study examines how variables are naturally related in real world, without any attempt to alter them. But cannot be used to establish causality or the direction of a relationship. Directionality problem Third variable problem: Instead of the presumption A causes B, a third variable C may cause A and B. Example more churches cause grater rate of crime, but ignores fact that more church may mean more people. An Experiment involved manipulating conditions Control variable-the participants in a study that receive no intervention Experimental group-The participants in a study that receive the intervention Independent variable-In experiment, the condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on dependent variable Dependent variable-in an experiment the measure that is affected by the independent variable Establishing causality- Depends on control variable, a confound is anything that affects the dependent variable and may unintentionally vary between the study’s different experiment conditions. Example number of hours worked may be confounded with how much money we spend in activities. Random assignment is used to establish equal groups- selection bias-when participants in different groups in an experiment differ, random assignment-equal chance to any variable.meta-analysis- a study of studies. Large samples generate more reliable results SUM IT UP Descriptive Cross Longitudinal Cross Sectional- Correlation- Experiment- studies-observing Sectional studies-Involves observed examine how demonstrated and classifying observing developmental variables are how variables are behavior. developmental changes that occur related with no related when changes in different groups intervention manipulated at the same time Value in early Compares Provide Faster and cheaper Rely on naturally Can demonstrate stages of two various information about occurring casual research, takes groups and effects of age on relationships place in real world measures fast same people, setting allowing establishing researchers to see phenomenon development Errors in Unidentifiable Expensive, time Unidentified Cannot be used to Artificial results obersevation can variables consuming results support casual occur because of bias and reactivity What are the data collection methods of psychological science Culturally sensitive research-studies that take into account the way culture affects thoughts feels and actions Observing is an unobtrusive strategy- may lead to reactivity and Hawthorne affect which will mix results. –example being observed leads to changed behavior- watched= more work. Observation should be as unobtrusive as possible Case studies examine individual lives and organizations CASE STUDIES Special observation study that involves intensive examination of one person or a few individuals Can provide extensive data on individual Can be very subjective/if researcher has a casual theory(loners are scary) this theory can bias what is recorded. It is not possible to generalize individual to population Asking takes a more active approach- interviews, surveys, experience sampling Interactive methods: experience sampling Involves asking questions, in either open ended or close ended Self report methods gather a lot of data, they are cost efficient and fast. Experience sampling also allows to determine responses varying over time People can introduce bias into answers and may not recall. Or lie socially desirable response or faking good. Better than avg effect-to express positive things Response performance: method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive process in response a specific stimulus Response performance methods Measure information processing while psychological task are being performed. Researchers measure reaction time, accuracy and ask participants to make stimulus judgments Simply way to study cognition and perception-less affected by bias Not real world, costly and time consuming The stroop effect- people have limited control over their reaction times, we have no conscious knowledge about what is happening in our brains as we use info but measure reaction time indirectly reflect brain processing->colors vs. words Body and brain activity can be measured directly Psychophysiological assessment-bodily functions change in association with mental state. Example : polygraph test Electroencephalography-a device that measures electrical activity in the brain Brian imaging- a range that makes brain activity visable-messures rate, speed and blood flow. Position emission tomography(PET) Magnetic resonance imaging Functional magnet resonance Tran cranial magnetic (MRI) imaging (fMRI) stimulation (TMS) A method of brain imaging that asses A method of brain imaging that An imaging technique used to The use of strong metabolic activity by using a produces high quality images examine changes in the activity magnets to briefly radioactive substance injected into of the brain of the brain interrupt normal the bloodstream brain activity and way to study brain. Examines regions specific for psychological function Research with animals provides important data Walton’s behaviorism was that humans are subject to same laws of nature as animals. Specific genes can be targeted for manipulation. Learning animals to make inferences to humans Ethical research is governed by principles that ensure fair and informed treatment of participants risk/benefit FIVE BASIC DATA COLLECTION METHODS 1. 1)observe behaviors as they take place and write general descriptions 2. 2)can ask information through interviews, surveys and self reports 3. 3)measure for how fast people respond to stimulus 4. 4)brain study 5. 5)animal models HOW ARE DATA ANALYZED AND EVALUATED Validity-the extent the data addresses your hypothesis, Reliability- the extent which measure is stable and consistent. Accuracy-the extent where the measurement is error free Descriptive statistic provides a summary of data-Descriptive statistic-overall summary of data, central tendency-measure that represents behavior of the group as a whole, mean-avg. median-middle. Mode-frequent value. Range. Inferential statistic-a set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of nums, showed whether results were a study due to an effect of one variable to another or were due to chance. Cross-culture leads to different results CHAPTER 3: Biological Foundation How does the nervous system operate Neurons-the basic unit of the nervous system; it operates through electrical impulses which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals. Neurons receive, integrate and transmit information in the nervous system. Types of neurons Sensory Neurons: Detect information about the physical world and pass the information along the brain: feel a table Motor Neurons: Efferent neurons direct muscles to contract and relax: controls movement.: flexing arms Interneurons:Communicate with others, Dendrites-cell body-axon-terminal buttons-synapse Action potentials cause Neural communication-the neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons Two types of signals: Excitatory(increase fire) and inhibitory (decrease fire) Action potential: the electrical charge inside the neuron starts out negative(resting membrane potential), as it fires, it allows more positive ions inside the cell (depolarization). Through restoration (repolarization), it then returns to its slightly negative resting state All or nothing principle: the principle whereby a neuron fires with same potency each time- it either fires or not. Its all timing Neurotransmitters- a chemical substance that carries signals from one neuron to another. Neurons themselves don’t touch Neurotransmitters influence mind and behavior Agonist-drug that enchases neurotransmitter/antaonist-drug that inhibits the action of neurotransmitter Neurotransmitter Functions Acetylcholine(ach) Motor controls over muscles, learning, memory and sleep Epinephrine Energy (adrenaline) Norenpinephrine Arousal Serotonin Emotional states and impulse Dopamine Reward and motivation GABA Inhibitory of action potential-anxiety and intoxication Glutamate Learning and memory Endorphins Pain reduction and reward Substance P Pain perception and mood Neurons communicate by firing 1. Neurotransmitters are released into the synapse by prestnaptix neuron 2. Neurotransmitters bind with receptors on postsynaptic neurons’ dendrites 3. Excitatory and inhibitory messages are compared in the cell body of the postsynaptic neuron 4. If the recept
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