Lippmann’s Stereotype: The tendency of ppl think of someone or something in
similar terms- having similar attributes.
Others: A very negative, lazy way of perceiving social groups- outward indication
of irrational, not analytic cognition, rigid thinking.
Allport: An exaggerated belief associated with a category/ Authoritarianism/
Prejudice attitudes of parents and children.
Allport: Attitudes is a fixed idea that accompanies a category. Any evaluation of
the out-group in the future is based on a recall of stored information.
Allport: Believed that prejudiced personality emerged out of “crippled” ego. The
person feels threaten and fearful, has insecurities.
Allport & Ross: Examined two different types of regilous individuals; “Extrinsic
and Intrinsic Religious orientation”.
Hamilton & Trolier: A cognitive structure that contains the perceiver’s
knowledge, beliefs and expectation about human group.
Ashmore & Del Boca: A set of belifs about the personal attributes of a group of
Gardner: Prejudice can mean prejudgment about something.
Stangor & Sullivan & Ford: The best predictor of negative out-group prejudice s
not negative feelings but lack of positive ones.
Stangor & McMillan: Memory for expectancy-consistent and expectancy-
inconsistent. Memory tends to be better for expectancy-incongruent
than expectancy congruent. Stangor & Ford: Suggested that ppl can be identified as either perceiving others
in an “accuracy oriented” or “expectancy confirming”
Eagly & Diekman: Prejudice is displayed towards a disadvantage group, when
that group tries to move into role for which they’re believed by
the majority group to be unqualified.
Smith: Draws on appraisal theories of emotion and self-categorization theory to
suggest a new conceptualization of prejudice.
Hovland: Persuasion messages were more likely to be successful when directed
toward a certain type of audience.
Hull & Skinner & Miller & Dollard: Learning theorist suggested a primary
reason that certain attitudes are formed and
maintained is that the expression of such attitudes
was followed by reinforcement events.
Thorndike: “Law of Effect”, which says that any behavior that is followed by a
positive event will be more likely to be performed again in the
Dollard: Suggest that frustration leads to aggression, and a special type of
aggression is feelings of prejudice towards others.
Berkoqitz: Reformulated the frustration-aggression theory to better account for
such situations by stipulating that any negative affect is likely to elicit
Festinger: “Cognitive Dissonance Theory”, Suggested that ppl r motivated to
maintain consistent cognitions (consistency between cognition and
behavior) and that the lack of cognitive consistency led to an
aversive psychological state (dissonance).
Tajfel: Stereotyping originated from process of social categorization. That social
categorization had major impact on how a perceiver views others.
Tajfel & Turner: “Social Identity Theory” (SIT), we all have a need for positive
self regard, and this need fuels motivational and cognitive biases in social perception aimed at helping us feel good about
ourselves, (Self regard is based on our own achievement and belongs).
Bodenhausen & Macra: When we r confronted with multiple ways of
categorizing another person, we would usually focus on
one primary categorization and inhibit information that
makes us think of other categories for that person.
Bodenhausen: “Incidental Affect and Integral Affect”, he notes that much
research on stereotyping has used incidental affect.
Kunda: Ppl do not merely believe whatever they want (or expect) to believe about
out-groups. They are objective and make up justifications for their
evaluation and beliefs by searching memory.
Brewer: Our social motives r governed by an alternating tension between our need
to be our own unique person and our need to belong to groups/ Optimal
distinctiveness theory (ODT): Brewer suggests that it is aversive to us to be
too extreme in our needs for uniqueness and belongingness.
Davis: “Relative Deprivation Theory”, suggests that when ppl decide that they
want X, they compare themselves with similar others who have X and feel
entitles to X, therefore will feel deprived.
Runciman: Suggested that it is important to distinguish between egoistic relative
deprivation and fraternal relative deprivation.
Campbell: “Realistic conflict theory”, when two groups age in competition for
scarce resources, feeling of hostility and prejudice towards the other
group would emerge.
Stephan & Stephan: The amount and condition of intergroup contact are crucial
determinants in whether the individual will experience anxiety prior
to, during, interactions with out-group.
Djiker: Four types of emotion th