8 Pages
Unlock Document

Dwayne Pare

STEREOTYPE THREAT CHAPTER 7: STEREOTYPE THREAT SPILLOVER  When people feel like they are being judged by a negative stereotype about their group, they perform poorly in the domain in which the stereotype applies – stereotype threat  Effects of stereotype threat don’t end in threatening environment, but also spill over into other domains where they have further detrimental consequences  Someone confronted with a negative stereotype comes to suffer effects in areas unrelated to the source of the threat, an experience we call stereotype threat spillover  Model’s based on identity-threat models of stigma, process models of stereotype threat and theories of stress and coping  Stereotype threat: apprehension that targets feel when they think that negative stereotypes about their group will act as a lens thought which their behaviors will be judged  Black students perform worse on standardizes tests of performance compared to white students b/c stereotypes are in the air arousing deep-seated fears and distracting them from doing as well as they could  Stereotype threat is robust occurring for many groups in many stereotyped domains from women in science to indigent students in france from elderly to white athletes  Performance is hurt by cues that hint that one’s social identity is devalued and marginalized o When one feels like the victim of a social identity threat  Social identity threat or stereotype threat can affect performance whenever people find themselves in threaning environments  What happens after people leave threatening environments?  Can coping with the stress of negative stereotypes spill over into other domains?  Model: o Stereotype threat is conceived as a stressor similar to those other stressors that targets of prejudice need to deal with like economic hardships and poor housing o Once appraised stereotype and social identity threat result in involuntary stress reactions like physiological arousal and cognitive distraction and volitional coping responses like thought suppression and attempts at emotion regulation  Voluntary and involuntary stress reactions can consume self-regulatory resources leaving people less able to control and regulate themselves in instances in which self-control is required  Even if Ps perform adequately in a stereotyped domain, the act of coping is difficult and can leave people in a depleted state that outlasts the threatening situation  Stress can have direct effects on a host of outcomes which together with depletion can result in short and long term consequences  Short-term coping with stereotype trheat can affect people in non-stereotyped domains  After women cope with the negative stereotypes about their math ability, they become more aggressive, eat more unhealthy foods and have a tougher time paying attention  Long term conseuqnces: o Theoretical and empirical links between threats to social identity and poor mental health (depression and anxiety), poor physical health (obesity, hypertension) and unhealthy behaviors (ignoring medical advice, drug use etc.)  Stereotype threat doesn’t always spill over and cause havoc in a variety of domains  Spillover is no inevitable, but can overcome with things like active coping, social support and vultivation of resilience A STRESS AND COPING MODEL OF STEREOTYPE THREAT SPILLOVER  READ FIGURE 7.1****  Based on identity-threat models of stigma, process models of stereotype threat and theories of stress and coping  Assumes that targets of prejudice are more at risk of facing social identity stress than are nontargets  Short-term: stress prompts efforts to cope, draining energy required for other things including making sound decisions and regulating emotions  Long-term: increased stress can directly and indirectly lead to physical and mental health problems such as hypertension, obesity and depression Model 1. Person by situation interaction  Situations and environments vary with some more threatening than others  Settings in which people come to suspect that they could be devalued, stigmatized or discriminated against b/c of a particular social identity  Examples: situations in which one is outnumbered by nonstigmatized outgroups i. When a woman finds herself as one of only a handful of women in her engineering lecture hall  Potentially threatening environments don’t need to arouse feelings of rejection explicitly, but may contain subtle innocuous cues  Number and position of male and female bathrooms on executive floor of a bank building may be enough to send messages of acceptance or rejection and start the cascade of physiological stress and coping responses  People differ in the extent to which they are aware of and bothered by negative stereotypes about their groups – construct known as stigma-consciousness or group-based rejection sensitivity  These individuals are vigilant for cues signaling that they are being viewed stereotypically and are more likely to appraise situations as threatening  Extent to which people regard their devalued identity as a central part of themselves contributes to identity threat appraisals and sod oes how strongly they identify with domains in which their group is negatively stereotypes  Type of threat people experience can vary between them  Situations and persons differ and in specific situations, specific people will become uncertain about their standing and vigilant for cues that signal that their group is devalued  States of uncertainty are significant b/c they are felt very keenly and are sometimes more aversive than states of certain negativity i. Could be why targets of prejudice are sometimes more affected by ambiguous cues of threat than by overt ones  Once uncertain, people become acutely aware of cues that indicate whether their social identity is being threatened If cues are not present or if individuals are not sensitive to those that are there, they may not make identity threat appraisals or experience further consequences  Identity-safe environments convey to individuals that their stigmatized social identities pose no barrier  If cues that confirm stereotype relevance are present in the environment or if individuals are sensitive to discrimination, they make threat appraisals setting in motion a chain of stress and coping responses  As soon as an identity threat appraisal is made, people experience a physiological stress response – increased arousal and distracting thoughts that consume limited working memory capacity  Involuntary stress responses are accompanied by voluntary coping strategies  Individuals are motivated to disconfirm negative stereotypes  On an academic test, targets of prejudice are motivated to perform well and expend great effort to do so  Once an individual confronts the possibility of failing, they may cope by suppressing harmful thoughts and denying uncomfortable emotions  Proximal mediator of threat-performance link is loss of executive control  All of the other putative mediators have tax executive control – the skill needed in any challenging info-processing task  The more executive control is used to manage the effects of stereotypes and identity threats, the less executive control remains for the central performance task and the less that remains after people leave the threatening environment  Stereotype threat leads to processing inefficiencies via depleted executive control  People can perform well when confronted by the stress of stereotypes, but would need to expend a good amount of energy and effort to do so  Whether people underperform or not, the extra compensatory coping effort can result in ego depletion affecting people long after they have left the threatening environment  Ego depletion: state of compromised reserves of self control, having little energy to overcome environmental temptations and override urges, emotions and automatic response tendencies  Self-control is a limited and easily exhausted resource, with prior acts of self-control depleting the self control available for subsequent tasks  Managing the stress of negative stereotypes involves coping strategies that are dependent on executive resources and b’c these resources are finite, coping could result in poorer self-control even after the stereotype stressor is no longer in the air  Short term- ego depletion can lead to maladaptive behaviors  Long term- effects of these behaviors can accrue and have significant consequences especially to the state of people’s health  Chronic exposure to the stress of dealing with a devalued social identity can have direct effects on health SHORT-TERM CONSEQUENCES OF STEREOTYPE SPILLOVER  Since coping with stereotype threat is ego depleting, it has the potential to affect any domain requiring self-control  After leaving a threatening environment, people continue to ehibit maladaptive behaviors in domains unrelated to the original threat  Stereotype threat can lead to aggression, overeating, risky decision making and problems maintain attention Experiment:  Examined whether coping with stereotype threat would lead to aggressive behavior among women  Aggressive impulses are various and common, ability to control such impulses is critical and is compromised by ego depletion  To the extent that coping with stereotype threat results in ego depletion, it should also result in unrestrained aggression  Female Ps took a difficult math test and half of them received instruction to reappraise the situation and test objectively as if they were professional test evaluators  Such reappraisal instructions eliminate the need to suppress thoughts and emotions in order to cope with threat, thereby saving P’s self-control resources  Other half of Ps given no further instruction about how to cope with the situation and presumably engaged in the resource-depleting coping strategy typical of those under threat – suppressing emotions and cognitions  When no longer in the threatening situation, Ps completed a competitive reaction time task against their partner  Whoever responded quicker to a stimulus was allowed to send a burst of white noise to the slower partner  Aggression operationalized as intensity and duration of white noise blasts delivered to partner RESULTS:  Stereotype threat spillover occurred  Whomen who coped with strereotype threat naturally engaged in more aggressive behavior than did those who wer envouraged to reappraise the situation  People normally restrain their aggressive impulses, but women who coped with threat did not  Using the same auppression vs reappraisal manipulation a second study investigated whether stereotype threat can spill over into the domain of eating behavior 
More Less

Related notes for PSY100H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.