PSYC12_lec 6.docx

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Dwayne Pare

PSYC12: LECTURE 6: EXPERIENCING PREJUDICE 1 What’s it like to be a target?  Preferences for dolls in children  Good doll and bad doll chosen by children  Which one are you like? o Black girl answers she’s like the bad doll  Most dolls in stores are white and you like what you’re familiar with  Exposed in media to white dolls o Not really showing low self esteem of black children Change of perspective  Mathew Sheppard – gay man living in Naomi  Found strung to a gate with head bashed in with shoe laces  Dies a few days later at hospital  Went to a gay bar, shy man  2 men went there to pick on someone and pretended to be gay themselves, befriended Mathew Sheppard  Took him “home” pistol whipped him and tied him up to a fence o Crime motivated by hate o Specifically went to a gay bar to look and hurt a gay person  Sexual orientation wasn’t covered under hate laws  Was not considered a hate crime before Laramie project  Play surrounded this incident Let’s look at target’s point of view  We’ve studied cognitive underpinnings of stereotyping, motivation, cultural preservatives of stereotyping, believing and knowing about stereotypes of other groups o All perspectives of perceivers of someone who does not belong in their group  Prejudiced personality  None of these questions answer what it’s like to be a gay man in a homophobic society, a muslim in a islamaphobic society? Stigma  Spoiled – degraded, less positive than majority group  People discriminate people with these other characteristics Types of stigma  Tribal markers – race, religion, gender, ethnicity o Lots of prejudice and stereotypes Abominations of body  Things that make you look different  Obesity o See someone fat walking down the hall, you look at them and you may giggle  Congenital deformity o Will be victims of target for their lives without surgery o Cola palous?  Excessive sweating and hyperhidrosis o Embarrassing to see pit stain, you laugh and if you had It you’re horrified o Have no control over, but stigmatizing characteristic  Being short  Cross-eyed  Stuttering  Vertically challenged Blemishes of character  Dementia from old age  Mental illness  Anorexia  Bulimia  Any personality trait  Someone who’s extroverted people are at top of hierarchy, but what if you’re painfully shy  Excessive shyness and be a discriminatory characteristic Tribal markers  Clothing, skin colour, breed, age markers o Sets you off as being with one tribe from another tribe  Stigmatizing and lead to negative consequences What type of stigma is being aged 73?  Tribal marker or abomination of body  Become weak and slow, less desirable  Blemish of character as well  Cognitive decline Males: New targets?  Traditional victim in gender war were women  Can men be victims due to their gender?  Article o Men complaining about discrimination in terms of reverse discrimination o I’m not being selected because I’m a man  Reacting to affirmative action: people are being hired due to a stigmatizing characteristic  White men won’t be chosen for this so they’re complaining  Retail jobs and bartenders want females more than males  Killing insects, heavy lifting and mowing lawns etc are men’s work  Laundry is a woman’s job – end of the world if told to do  Babysitting job given to woman than man  Women’s only versus men’s only gym time A model of stigma reactions  Psychology of what it’s like to belong to a stigmatized group A- Collective representations – culture, where are you? Depending where you are, stereotypes will be different B- Situational cues – what is in the immediate environment, what’s around you communicating things about your identity, number of people, men are outnumbered by women in the class o Says a lot about how many people are studying for midterms o Psychology of prejudice o Conscientiousness C- Personal characteristics – what is person like who may be making identity threat appraisal? Are they sensitive to their identity are they stigma conscious? Are they worried about stereotypes of their group? What’s their personality? Low or high self esteem? Care about domain they’re in or not? o Three elements that moderate whether someone makes an identity threat appraisal o “I am being discriminated right now as an asian person, woman, but not as a person because of my identity  Two responses can occur  Non-volitional – stress response o Heart beats faster, thoughts racing through mind, what’s this person thinking of me? Am I going to get fired?  Volitional responses – engage in cognitive strategy to control the situation o Calm down, this person is not saying this convince yourself o Leave the room o Start a fight  Outcome o Failing a test o Get screened longer time at airport o Make a new friend  Based on stress response and coping response to that stress Major & O’Brien  Collective representations: meta-stereotype – stereotypes people have about other people’s stereotypes o I’m jewish and I’m aware of other people’s stereotypes, I stereotype stereotypers (other people’s stereotypes- jews are dumb)  Situational Cues – number of people in a room, lighting, size of room, where you are school, store, airport  Personal – what are you like and how is the way you’re like affect this, threat appraisal  Threat appraisal  Involuntary responses – stress response when making an identity threat appraisal  Voluntary responses  Outcome How do Muslims cope at the airport?  Muslim man didn’t look at anyone in the eye and was uncomfortable  Why was he uncomfortable?  In Toronto with a high salience of muslims being associated with terrorists (culture) especially in airports like events of 911 (situational) o Seemed devout and had a marker of his faith, strongly identifies with his group (personal)  People are going to judge me based on how I look – man makes a threat identity appraisal (this is key)  Thinking, worrying, sweating (non-voluntary)  Stood still, did not look up (voluntary)  Outcome – how is he feeling at that moment (worried), health (was nervous and stressed – can be damaging to body can lead to premature death, disease), unhealthy for them to visit airport very often  Some people don’t care and can cope with being in airports in your mind that could lead to positive or negative outcomes Stigma and Self-Esteem  We expect stigma to lead to low selfesteem  African Americans have lower SES and poor inter relationships with cross group people and should lower self esteem  Reflected appraisals o I see myself as how you see me & If you see me poorly then I should see myself poorly as well  Self-fulfilling prophecies o Confirmation bias: confirm what others think of me  African Americans don’t suffer from low self esteem in comparison to white Americans Crocker and Major  Stigma can help you not feel bad about your
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