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Midterm #1 Review The summary of every chapter from 1-7. Key words are italicized. I got a 94 in the course.

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 1What Are the Themes of Psychological ScienceThe Principles of Psychological Science are CumulativeScience builds on the foundation of shared knowledgeA New biological Revolution Is Energizing ResearchBrain chemistry neurotransmitters and their roles in mental activity and behaviourThe human genome the link between genes and behaviourWatching the working brain as it performs its vital psychological function how different brain regions interactThe Mind Is AdaptiveEvolutionary theory natural selection provided physical characteristics skills and abilities all known as adaptationsSolving adaptive problems behaviour that is critical for survival is adaptive eg socialModern minds in stone age skulls some of our current behaviour is based on or byproducts of adaptive solutions in the past that were useful eg sweet toothCulture provides adaptive solutions shared social understanding of how the world works eg westerners are more analytic easterners holistic norms for different contextsPsychological Sciences Crosses Levels of AnalysisBreaking down behavioural phenomena into its component partsSocial culturalinterpersonalIndividual individual differences perception and cognitionbehaviourBiological brain systems neurochemicalgeneticWhat are the Intellectual Origins of PsychologyThe natureNurture Debate Considers the Impact of Biology and EnvironmentNature is tightly interwoven with nurture eg Mental disorders results as much from the way the brain is wired as from the way people are treatedThe MindBody Problem Has Challenged Philosophers and PsychologistsAre the mind and body separate and distinct or is the mind the subjective experience of the brainRen Descartes promoted the theory of dualism the mind and body are separate yet intertwinedThe body is an organic machine governed by reflex but in whose functions and experiences eg love hate anger result mental ones eg memory imaginationEvolutionary Theory Introduces Natural SelectionSurvival of the fittestInheritable individual differences provides basis of evolutionary developmentcan be applied to individual differences in psychology eg intelligenceHow did the Scientific Foundations of Psychology DevelopJohn Stuart Mill declared psychology should leave the realm of speculation and philosophy and become a science of observation and experienceExperimental Psychology Begins with StructuralismWilhelm Wundt measured mental reaction times then conscious experiences through introspectionthe systematic examination of subjective mental experiencesEdward Titchener used introspection to develop structuralismconscious experience can be studied when it is broken down into its underlying components or elementsoProblem each person brings in a unique perceptual systemsubjectivityFunctionalism Addresses the Purpose of BehaviourWilliam James criticized structuralism the minds usefulness to people is more important than its elements believing that the mind was much more complex than its elementsoeg stream of consciousnessa continuous and everchanging series of thoughtsofunctionalism concerns how the mind operates in a way that is useful in fitness how it can be applied to the real world eg a behaviours purpose reflected in lifeGestalt Psychology Emphasizes Patterns and Context in LearningGestalt theory the whole is different from the sum of its parts the mind perceives the world in an organized fashion that cannot be broken down into its constituent elementsPhenomenological approach unstructured reporting ofexperiences subjectiveThe Unconscious Influences Everyday Mental LifeSigmund Freud believed that unconscious mental forces in conflict produced psychological discomfort and in some cases disordersDeveloped psychoanalysis to bring the contents of the unconscious into the consciousMost Behaviour Can Be Modified by Reward and PunishmentJohn B Watson emphasized behaviourismbehavioural response relied solely on environmental stimuli and triggers nurture no natureBF Skinner denied the scientific value ofmental processes in explaining behaviourHow People Think Affects BehaviourIt soon became clear that mental functions were important for understanding behaviourGeorge A Miller introduced cognitive psychology the study of higherorder mental functions eg intelligence thinking language memory like information processingSocial Situations Shape BehaviourKurt Lewins field theory emphasized the interplay between people biology habits beliefs and their environment social situations group dynamicsPsychological Therapy Is Based on SciencePeople who come to know and accept themselves can reach their unique potentialsTherapeutic approaches depend onoAdopting a treatment widely recognized to be clinically effectiveoRecognizing that each person is a unique individual with specific needsThere is no universal treatment or approach for all psychological disordersHow can we apply Psychological ScienceSubdisciplines Focus on Different Levels of AnalysisPsychological scientist use science to study the brain practitioners apply the knowledgeSocial psychologisthow cultural valuespeer groups shape musical preferencesPersonality psychologistindividual preferences in types of musicDevelopmental psychologisthow musical preference changes as one agesCognitive psychologisthow music changes that way people thinkCognitive neuroscientistperception of music differing from auditory processingBehavioural neuroscientisthow music affects the body and brainExperimental psychopathologistusing music in studies of disordered behaviourPsychological Knowledge Is Used in Many ProfessionsBecause psychology focuses on human behaviourPeople Are Intuitive Psychological ScientistsHumans naturally explain and predict the behaviours of others but cannot intuit the inner workings of psychologyPsychological Sciences Require Critical Thinking Scepticism is an important element of science and requires critical thinking and the evaluation of evidence and conclusions
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