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Term Test 2 and exam definitions definitions for term test 2 and exam (excluding term test 1)

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Dan Dolderman

Chapter 7Memory Removed HMs hippocampus to stop seizures and resulted in loss of long term memory processingThinking is fine can hold a normal conversation as long as theres no distractions learns new thingsTask trace star while watching hand in a mirror 10x each of the 3 daysimprovedTherefore can learn new motor skillsMemory the capacity of the nervous system to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge allowing living organisms to benefit from experience Modal memory model 3 stage memory system that involves sensory memory shortterm memory and longterm memoryRemember millions of pieces of information from trivial to vital entire sense of self is that which we know from our memories from our recollection of personal experiencesMemories are often incomplete biased and distortedMany sides to every story because each person stores and retrieves memory for the event in distinctive waysMemory is a story that can be subtly altered through telling and retellingsLate 1960s most psychologists viewed memory as a form of information processing computer o3 stage memory system sensory memory short term long termmodal memory modelPsychologists now believe that there are multiple memory systemsSensory memory memory for sensory information that is stored briefly in its original sensory form Visual sensory memory is also called iconic memory auditory sensory memory is also called echoic memory George Sperling 3 rows of letters displayed for 120 of a s asked to recall one row after awhile worse for longer delay periodsEchoic and iconic allow us to experience the world as a continuous stream rather than in discrete sensations movie projector Short term memory a limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for a brief period of timeImmediate memory the idea that this temporary buffer consists of our fleeting thoughts feeling and impressions of the world RAMSTM lasts for 20s unless you rehearse it repeatedly telephone numberMust focus in order to rememberGeorge Miller noted STM is about 72 memory span Cowan said 4 Varies among individuals Measure of IQOrganizing a string of letters into units makes it easier to remember 1 Memory span in limited to at most 7 items or fewer letters numbers words concepts 2 Meaningful units are easier to remember than nonsense unitschunking more efficient more you remember chessSTM is really an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information of information sounds images ideas Working memory an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use problem solving reasoning and comprehension the 3 components are central executive the phonological loop and visuospatial sketchpad Central executive encodes information from the sensory systems and then filters information that is sufficiently important to be stored in LTM also retrieves from LTM relied on 2 subcomponents that hold auditory and visual information temporarily Phonological loop encodes auditory information and is active whenever you rad speak or repeat words to yourself in order to remember them inner voice tend to make errors with consonants that sound alike rather than look alikewords are processed in working memory by how they sound rather than by what they mean Visuospatial sketchpad processes visual information such as objects features and where they are locatedkeep track of where the dog is and if it should be watched Long term memory the relatively permanent storage of information hard drive but limitlessDuration and capacity separates LTM from STMAbility to recall iterms from the list depended on order of presentation items presented early or late are remembered bestserial position effectSerial position effect involves primacy effect first items and recency effects last itemsStudy a list rehearse the earliest itemstransferring it to LTM last few items in STMCase studies of brain injury patientsdemonstrate that LTM can be dissociated from STM but are interdependentGoes into our LTM rehearsal Overlearning rehearsing material that you already know pretty well leads to improved memory especially over longer periods of time Distributed practice studying that is spread out over time most efficient way to learn Massed practice cramming studying in a brief period of timeHowever sometimes we have extremely poor memory for objectsOnly information that helps us adapt to the environment is transferred from ST to LTStoring meaningful information to benefit from experienceHow we decide in advance of whats useful is explained by evolutionary theory
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