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Midterm- Textbook Chapter 3 Notes You dont need to read textbook! Just read this! I took this course on 2010. Guaranteed A in this midterm. Ch.3) Biological Foundations

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Dan Dolderman

Biological Foundations Ch3 Neurons Are Specialized for CommunicationNeuron The basic unit of the nervous system that operates through electrical impulses which communicate with other neurons through chemical signals3 Functions Neurons receive reception integrate conduction and transmit transmission information in the nervous systemDendrites Branchlike extension of the neuron that detect info chemical signals from other neuronsCell body In the neuron where info from thousands of other neurons is collected and processedAxon A long narrow outgrowth of a neuron by which information is transmitted to other neuronsNerve refers to a bundle of axonsTerminal buttons Small nodules at the ends of axons that release chemical signals from the neuron to an area called the synapseSynapse The site for chemical communication between neuronsThree Types of neuronsSensory neurons Afferent neurons that detect info from the physical world and pass that info along to the brainMotor neurons Efferent neurons that direct muscles to contract or relax thereby producing movementInterneurons Neurons that communicate only with other neurons typically within a specific brain regionSomatosensory Nerves that provide info from muscles sensations experienced from within the bodyNeurons dont communicate randomly they selectively communicate with other neurons to form circuits or neural networks Action Potentials Cause Neuronal CommunicationAction potential neuronal firing The neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttonsThe resting membrane potential is negatively chargedWhen not active the inside and outside of a neuron differ electrically because of the balance of ions in the intracellular fluidResting membrane potential The electrical charge of a neuron when it is not activeThe ratio of negative to positive ions is greater inside the neuron than outside the neuronMicroelectrode tiny devices that register electric currents to measure a neurons resting membrane potentialResting potential is 70mV negative means that the inside is negative in comparison to the outside
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