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Text Notes Chap 1-6 excellent detailed text notes chapter 1-6 (psychological science) 11pgs long graduating mark in course: 91% mark in midterm these were designed for: 94%

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Dan Dolderman

Psy 100 Text notes Chap1: Introduction to Psychological Science What are the themes of psych science? Psych science is the study of the mind, brain, and behavior Mind: mental activity Brain: biological process Behavior: variety of actions that occur in organisms. 1.) the principles of Psychological science are cumulative Research on the mind, brain and behavior has accumulated over time to produce the principles of psych science 2.) a new biological revolution is energizing research Deeper understanding of the human mind and behavior. Three developments have set the stage for this bio rev o Brain chemistry Neurotransmitters o The human genome The links btw genes and behavior o Watching the working brain Localization of function 3.) the mind is adaptive The mind has been shaped by evolution o Evolutionary theory Natural selection, adaptations Solving adaptive problems o Solutions to adaptive problems are built into the brain and therefore require no special training Modern minds in stone age skulls o Many of the adaptive problems faced by humans no longer exist o By products of adaptive solutions: surrent behaviors that dont reflect our evolutionary history. Culture provides adaptive soltions o Biological and cultural evolution o The culture we live in shapes the way we interact with the world. Sum: the human mind is adaptive in both bio and cultural terms. We need to focus on both to understand mind brain and behavior. 4.) psych science crosses levels of analysis (LOAs) Social o Cultural, Interpersonal Individual o Individual differences, Perception and cognition, Behavior Biological o Brain systems, Nurochemical, Genetic What are the intellectual origins of psychology? The nature-nurture debate considers the impact of biology and environment Tightly interwoven and inseperable 1 The mind-body problem has challenged philosophers and psychologists Are the mind and body separate and distinct, or is the mind simply the subjective experience of the brain? Leonardo divinci, the sensus communis as the home of thought Descartes: Cartesian dualism: the mind exists separately from the physical body o Mind and body can effect each other Evolutionary theory introduces natural selection Darwin. Natural selection Malthus How did the scientific foundations of psych develop? Experimental psychology begins with structuralism Wilhelm Wundt o Founder of experimental psychology o introspection: a systematic examination of subjective mental experiences Titchener o Structuralism: conscious experience can be studied when it is broken down into its underlying components, or elements o Problem: experience is subjective Functionalism addresses the purpose of behavior William James o One of the main critics of structuralism o The principles of psychology o Stream of consciousness: ones continuous series of thoughts that are ever changing. o Functionalism: concerns how the mind operates, not what the mind contains. Ie The mind helps organisms adapt to environmental demands Gestalt psychology empahasizes patterns and context in learning Gestalt and functionalism rise in opposition to structuralism Wertheimer, kohler The whole is different from the sum of its parts. The mind perceives the world in an organized fashion that cant be broken down into its constituent elements The unconscious influences everyday mental life Freud. The unconscious. o Pyschoanalysis a method developed by freud that attempts to bring the contents of unconscious into conscious awareness so that conflicts can be revealed o Free assaciation Most behavior can be modified by reward and punishment Behaviourism: Watson o The role of environmental factors in producing behavior. Skinner How people think affects behaviour. Miller and the cognitive revolution: how humans perceive situations influence behavior. Cognitive psychology Psychological therapy is based on science How can we apply Psychological science? Subdisciplines focus on different LOAs 2 Psychological scientists, psychological practitioners. Ie clinical, social, developmental, cognitive, personality, behavioral, experimental Psychological knowledge is used in many professions People are intuitive psychological scientists Psychological sciences require critical thinking Chap 2: Research Methodology Formulate hypothesisdesign studycollect the dataanalyze datadetermine the results What is scientific inquiry? Scientific method has 4 goals: description; prediction; causal control; explanation Scientific questions can be answered objectively Scientific inquiry, the study of empirical questions, can be answered by observing and measuring the world around us The empirical process depends on theories, hypotheses, and research Theory, hypothesis, research (data collection) Theories should generate hypothesis The value of unexpected findings What are the types of studies in psychological research What kind of study should test a certain hypothesis: experimental, correlational, descriptive. Variable: something that can be measured and varies Operational definition: the quantification of a variable that allows it to be measured. o Ie coordination: walking in a straight line 1.) experiment Independent variable: manipulated Dependent variable: measured The researcher studies the causal connection btw the two o A confound: anything affecting a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary btw the different experimental conditions of a study Random assignment is used to est equivalent groups o Selection bias. 2.) correlational designs examine how variables are related. Correlational study: dealing with how variables naturally occur and the natural connections between them. cannot show causation, Third-variable problem: experimenter cannot directly manipulate the ID so cant be confident that another unmeasured variable isnt the actual cause of differences in the DV The directionality problem: does reduced stress lead to better sleep or does better sleep led to reduced stress. 3.) descriptive studies observe and classify behavior Descriptive/ observational studies: observing and noting behavior to provide a systemic and objective analysis Naturalistic v. participant observation What are the data collection methods in psych Est the best design for conducting the study, now choose the method to collect the data 5 basic data collection models 1.) observing is an unobtrusive strategy 3 observation techniques: careful and systemic assessment and coding of overt behavior. the reactivity effect: observation might alter the behavior being observed. (the hawthorn effect). Observation should be as unobtrusive as possible. Observer bias systemic errors in observation that occur due to an observers expectations. Experimenter expectancy effect: actual change in behaviours of those observed due to observer bias. Rosenthal 2.) asking takes a more active approach Open-ended v. close-ended questions Self-report methods Random sampling Self-report bias o Socially desirable responding o Wording in cross-cultural research Case studies examine individual lives The interpretation of case studies often very subjective 3.) response performance measures stimulus processing (Wilhelm Wundt) response performance: quantifies how a perceptual or cognitive process responds to a specific stimulus. Quantified in three ways o Reaction time, response accuracy, stimulus judgments 4.) body and brain activity can be directly measured Psychophysiological assessment: how changes in bodily functions are associated with the behaviour or mental state o Ie polygraphs Electrophysiology: measures electric activity in the brain o EEGs o ERPs: event related potentials: averaging across the trials o Not where, but when activity happens Brian imaging o Measure flow of blood and oxygen. Where something happens in the brain o PETs: computer aided reconstruction of the brain (through radioactive injection) o MRIs: magnetic resonance imaging fMRI: an image of the working brain 5.) research with animals provides important data at biological loa, ppl directly manipulate genes to examine their effects of behaviour. Ethical issues to consider Institutional review boards Informed consent Relative risks of participation Research with animals How are data analyzed and evaluated? Good research req
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