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Text Notes Chap 7-15 excellent detailed description of text chap 7-15- 21 pgs worth! (psychological science) study material for the second midterm graduating mark: 91%

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Dan Dolderman

Ch 7&8: memory and thinking Ch 10: emotion Ch 13&14: disorders and treatments Ch 15: social psychology Ch 7&8: memory and thinking Ch 7: Memory Memory: the capacity of the NS to acquire and retain useable skills and knowledge. Are often incomplete, biased and distorted. A story that can be altered through retellings. What are the basic stages of memory? Modal memory model: Sensory memory is brief Temporary sensory buffer. Allows us to experience memory as a stream Visual: iconic memory, auditory: echoic memory. Approx 1/3 second Short term memory is active A limited capacity memory system that holds information is awareness for brief periods of time. Aka immediate memory. Approx 20 seconds unless you prevent it. o Repetition o Chunking Memory span: STM generally limited to 7 items, plus or minus two Meaningful units easier to remember. Organizing information into meaningful units: chunking The ability to chuck efficiently relies on our LTM STM as Working memory o STM not a single storage system but rather an active processing unit that deals with multiple types of information such as sounds, images and ideas. o WM: an active processing system that keeps information available. Central executive Encodes information from the sensory systems and then filters imp info to LTM. Also retrieves info from LTM as needed. Relies on 2 subcomponents that temporally hold auditory of visual information. Phonological loop Encoded auditory info and is active whenever you read, speak or use repetition Visio spatial sketchpad. Processes visual info such as objects features and location Long term memory is relatively permanent The relatively permanent storage of info Differs from STM in 2 imp ways: duration and capacity Evidence that STM and LTM are different systems: o Individual LOA Serial position effect: you dont tend to remember words in the middle of the list 1 a.) primacy effect o they rehearse the first items the most: so in LTM b.) recency effect o Biological LOA Case studies like HM: LTM still intact but unable to convert STM into LTM So they can be disconnected but theyre highly interdependent. What gets into LTM o Rehearsal Overlearning Distributive over massed practice o Meaningful information Evolutionary theory What are the different memory systems? Modal memory system challenged: memory isnt a monolithic entity but rather a process that involves a number of interacting systems that all encode information in different ways. Explicit memory involves conscious effort The processes involved when people remember specific info o Info retrieved in explicit memory is declarative memory. The content of memory Episodic memory: ones personal past experiences Semantic memory: ones knowledge of facts independent of personal experience. Implicit memory occurs without deliberate effort : the process by which people show that theyre remembering something w/o effort or awareness a.) procedural memory (motor memory): motor skills and behavioral habits o influences our lives in many ways Attitudes formed through implicit learning false fame effect b.) repetition priming: the improvement in identifying or processing a stimulus that has previously been experienced. o priming How is Information organized in long-term memory? (LTM) Its a temporal sequence encoding: big + furry = dog storage: memory retrieval: implicit and explicit Its based on meaning the more deeply an item is encoded the more meaning it has and the better its remembered maintenance rehearsal o repetition elaborative rehearsal o encoding the information in more meaningful ways. Schemas provide an organizational framework hypothetical cognitive structures that help us perceive, organize, process and learn information. 2 Sort incoming info and guide attn to the relevant features of the environment. Existing schemas help us make sense of the world, but can also lead to biased encoding Schemas influence which information is stored in memory. Association networks store information Memory organization is based on associative networks The closer the nodes, the stronger the association, the increased likelihood that the closely associated node will be activated o sweet based on info that hierarchically organized. Can find needed info quickly Retrieval cues provide access to LTM storage anything that helps people access information: retrieval cue. Encoding specificity o Any stimulus thats encoded along with an experience can later trigger the memory of the experience. o Context-dependent memory: sensory info and physical location. (scuba divers) State dependent memory o Match btw internal states during encoding and recall (profs cheque) What brain processes are involved in memory? There has been intensive effort to identify the physical location of memory Equipotentiality: (Lashley) Distributed throughout the brain rather than in one place? o Yes, but really no Memories stored in multiple regions but linked together through memory circuits o Hebbian learning. o A lot of neural specialization occurs with different brain regions responsible for different storing aspects of info Ie HM: temporal lobes imp for storing new info The medial temporal lobes are important for consolidation of declarative memories Has a number of structures imp for memory incl the amygdala, the hippocampus and the rhinal cortex Consolidation: a hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory to LTM. o results form changes in the strength of neural connections that support memory o the temporal lobes responsible for this strengthening, but the actual storage most likely occurs particular brain region engaged during perception. Reconsolidation: once activated the memories need to be consolidated again o Explains why our memories for events can change over time. Localizing function w/i medial temporal lobes o Mishkins animal model of memory Animal needs to learn the rule, and remember with side the food was in last hippocampus and surrounding rhinal cortex: essential for declarative memory spatial memory o morris water maze test hippocampal place cells. Hippocampus imp for spatial memory The frontal lobes are involved in many aspects of memory extensive neural network with other brain regions to coordinate encoding, storage and 3 retrieval. Frontal lobes crucial for encoding. Hemispheric asymmetries in encoding and retrieval o Some evidence that encoding (left) and retrieval (right) occur in different hemispheres. o Hemispherical encoding retrieval system: HERA Frontal lobes and working memory o Become active when info is being either retrieved from LTM into working mem or encoded from working mem into LTM Neurochemistry influences memory Memory involves alterations in connection across synapses. As memories are consolidated, distributed networks of neurons become linked together. o Collectively these neurotransmitters are known as memory modulators. Neurochemistry indicated meaningfulness of stimuli o Memory modulation: evolution: determining whats important o Important events lead to neurochemical changes that produce emotional experiences. Epinephrine (adreneline) and glucose indicate that an experience is meaningful More recently: epinephrine enhances mem b/c of its effects on norepinephrine activity in the amygdala The amygdala and the neurochemistry of emotion o Controls the modulating effects of nts on memory. It is the limbic structure closely tied to fear reactions and is located in the medial temporal lobe. o Stimulated in emotional memory o PSTD: exposure to stimuli associated with past trauma activates the amygdala When do people forget? the seven sins of memory forgetting o transience, absentmindedness, blocking, distorting o misattribution, suggestibility, bias, und
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