Psychology Final Exam

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Ashley Waggoner Denton

Chapter 1 Ch. 1: pp. 16 – 25 (history)
 Various schools of Thought:  Structuralism: Conscious experience can be understood by breaking it down into its underlying components. Big names: Wundt, Titchener  Functionalism: The mind works as it does because it hleps humans ADAPT to environmental demands. Big names: Willam James  Gestalt: The whole of personal experience cannot be understood by just examining its underlying components. Big names: Kohler  Behaviorism: All behavior is a result of environmental forces, not mental states. Big names: Watson and skinner  Cognitive Psychology: Born of the cognitive revolution. Concerned with higher-order mental functions (intelligence, thinking, memory, etc) Big names George Miller Chapter 2: research mythology Ch. 2: pp. 35 – 77 (research methods) know 35 - 53 The Scientific Method:  Hypothesize: Make a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world it a theory is correct  Operationalize: Define theoretical construcs (eg. Hunger) in terms of concrete obserbale procedures (e.g number of hours since last meal)  Measure: involves collecting data: objective obseravations or measurements  Evaluate: Descriptive statistics: summarize data (e.g mean, standard deviation); inferential statistics: determine whether differences actually exist in populations  Revise, replicate, report: Exact replication: repeating the identical experiment to confirm results. Conceptual replication: Repeating the same experiment but with different operational definitions. Types of studies:  Descriptive/ Observational: - Naturalistic observation: Passive observation, observers do not change or alter ongoing behavior - Participant observation: Researchers becomes actively involved in the situation  Correlational: Examines how variables are naturally related in the real world. (without actively manipulating them). The third-variable problem and directionality problem are both concerns in correlational studies (prevent causal claims from being made)  Experimental: Studies that test casual hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables; involves random assignment; control. Chapter 3 Biological foundations: Ch. 3: pp. 81 – 124 (biological foundations) Go over 118- end  Dendrites: detect information from other neurons  Axons: long outgrowth along where electrical impulses are transmitted  Mylein sheath: (glial cells), allows for the rapid movement of electrical impulses along an axon  Nodes of Ranvier: site of action potential transmission, small gaps of exposed axon between the myelin sheaths  Synapse: Tiny gap in between the sending and receiving neuron, where chemical communication takes place  Somatic nervous system: a major component of the peripheral nervous system it transmits sensory signals to the CNS via nerves  CNS  Autonomic nervous system (ANS): a major component of the peripheral nervous system; it regulates the body’s internal environment by stimulating glands and by maintaining internal organs such as the heart, gall bladder and the stomach  somatosensory signals to the CNS  Sympathetic division of ANS: A division of the autonomic nervous system; it prepares the body for action  Parasymphatehtic division: a division of the autonomic nervous system; returns the body to its resting state Neural Communication:  Action potential: the neural impulses that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons  All-or-none principal: The principle whereby a neuron fires with the same potency each time. (it either fires or does not fire), thought the frequency of firing can vary  Neurotransmitter: A chemical stubastace that carries signals from one neuron to another. E.g. Glutamate (major excitatory neurotransmitter) ; GABA (major inhibitory neurotramitter)  Agonist: Any drug that enhances the action of a specific neurotransmitter  Antagonist: Any drug that inhibits the action of a specific neurotransmitter Matching:  Hippocampus: memory  Pituitary: master gland  Cerebellum: coordinated movement  Brain stem: Breating and swallowing  Amygdala: Emotion  Prefrontal coretex: personality, decision-making, working memory, attention, social behavior.  Basal Ganglia: Reward  Thalamus: Sensory gateway The Brain:  Frontal lobe: - thought, planning movement. - Includes the primary motor cortex - Pre-frontal cortex: important for attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, and personality  Parietal lobe: - touch, spatial relations - includes the primary somatosensory cortex  Temporal Lobe: - Hearing - Includes the primary auditory cortex  Occipital Lobe: - Vision - Includes the primary visual cortex Chapter 4: the mind and consciousness - The left hemisphere vocalizes a response, and it sees what is on the right side of the visual field  Left Hemisphere: “the interpreter”, better with language, controls the right side of the body and sees things presented in the right visual field  Right Hemisphere: better with spatial relationships, controls the left-side of the body and sees things presented in the left visual field How is the conscious mind experienced  Consciousness: the subjective experience of the world and of mental activity. Consciousness is a subjective experience: Consciousness is difficult to study because of the subjective nature of our experience of the world. Brain imaging research has shown that particular brain regions are activated by particular type of sensory information.  Qualia: properties of our subjective experience. There are variations in conscious experience: Consciousness is each person’s unified and coherent experience of the world around him or her. At any one time, each person can be conscious of a limited number of things. A person’s level of consciousness varies throughout the day and depends on the task at hand. Whereas some people in comas show no brain activity ( a persistent vegetative state), people in minimally conscious states show brain activity indicating some awareness of external stimuli. Splitting the Brain splits the conscious Mind: The corpus callosum connects the brain’s two sides; cutting it in half results in two independently functioning hemispheres. The left hemisphere is responsible primarily for language, and the right hemisphere is responsible primarily for images and spatial relations. The left hemisphere strives to make sense of experiences, and its interpretations influence the way a person views and remembers the world.  Split brain: A condition in which the corpus callosum is surgically cut and the two hemispheres of the brain do not receive information directly from each other.  Visual input: indicated that images from the left side go to the brains’ right hemisphere and images from the right side go to the left hemisphere.  when a person is asked what they (split brain), the left hemisphere sees the stuff on the right side and is able to verbalize that, but isn’t able to verbalize things seen on the left side by the right hemisphere, but however if the objects were presented infron of him he can pick up the correct one using the left hand because the right side is responsible for spatial arrangement and etc, but just isnt’ about to say it out loud.  Left hemisphere interpreter: On the basis of limited information, the left hemisphere attempts to explain behaviors governed by the right hemisphere. Interpreter: A left hemisphere process that attempts to make sense of events.  Subliminal perception: Information processed without conscious awareness Unconscious processing influences behavior: Research findings indicate that much of a person’s behavior occurs automatically, without that person’s constant awareness. Thought and behavior can be influenced by stimuli that are not experienced consciously. Brain activity produces consciousness: Blind sight demonstrates visual ability without awareness. The global workspace model of consciousness demonstrates how awareness depends on activity in various different cortical areas  Blind sight: A condition in which people who are blind has some spared visual capacities in the absence of any visual awareness. So no physical damage to the eye, but the brain just has a hard time processing it. Some information is sent to different brain regions, that are able to pick up on certain cues.  Areas of awareness: A central theme emerging from cognitive neuroscience is that awareness of different aspects of the world is associated with functioning in different parts of the brain.  Prefrontal cortex: “I understand plans”  Frontal motor cortex: “I’m all about movement”  Parietal lobe: “I’m aware of space”  Temporal lobe: “ I see and hear things”  Occipital lobe: “I see things” What is Altered Consciousness: Hypnosis is induced through suggestion: Scientist debated whether hypnosis is an altered state of consciousness or whether hypnotized people merely play the role they expect ( and are expected) to play. Brain imaging research suggest that hypnotized subjects undergo changes in brain activity.  Hypnosis: a social interaction during which a person responding to suggestions, experiences a change in memory, perception, and/ or voluntary action.  Slef-hypnosis: referred that some people can use this method to recover from surgery Meditation produced relaxation: The goal of meditation, especially as practiced in the West, is to bring about a state of deep relaxation. Studies have shown that meditation can have multiple benefits for people’s physical and mental health.  Meditation: A mental procedure that focuses attention on a external object or on a sense of awareness People can lose Themselves in Activities: Exercise, certain religious practices, and other engaging activities can produce a state of altered consciousness called flow, in which people becomes completely absorbed in what they are doing. Flow is a positive experience, but escaptist activities can be harmful if people use them for avoidance rather than for fulfillment. Chapter 5: Sensation and perception pp. 187 – 239: know 187 - 205  Sensation: The sense organs’ responses to external stimuli and the transmission of these responses to the brain. (E.g. chemicals being sensed by taste receptors in the tongue)  Perception: The processing, organization, and interpretation of sensory signals; results in an internal representation of the stimulus. (E.g the experience of a particular taste, “this is sour!”)  Transduction: A process by which sensory receptors produce neural impulses when they receive physical or chemical stimulation  Absolute threshold: The minimum intensity of a stimulation that much occur before you experience a sensation  Difference threshold: The minimum amount of change required for a person to detect a difference- the just noticeable difference between two stimuli  Sensory adaptation: A decrease in sensitivity to a constant level of stimulation. Allows sensory systems to be sensitive to changes  Accomodation: Process by which muscles behind the iris change the shape of the lens, flattening it to focus on distant objects and thickening it to focus on closer objects  Dorsal stream: Upper visual pathway, specialized for spatial perception- determining WHERE an object is and relating it to other objects in a scene  Ventral stream: Lower visual pathway, specialized for perception and recognition of objects such as determining their colours and shapes (WHAT the object is)  Lateral inhibition: Emphasizes changes in the visual stimuli. Believed to be responsible for the Hermann Gridd illusion The senses:  Gustation: the sense of taste. Taste receptors are part of the taste buds, supertasters have six times as many taste buds as normal tasters  Olfaction: the sense of smell. Has the most direct route to the brain. Receptors in the olfactory epithelium  olfactory bulb  olfactory nerve  cortex/ amygdala  Haptic sense: The sense of touch. Separate pain, pressure, and temperature receptors in the skin  Audition: The sense of sound, perception. A sound wave is the pattern of changes in the air pressure through time and that result is the percept of sound  Vision: The sense of sight. Rods are receptor cells which respond to low levels of illumination. Cones respond to higher levels of illumination and result in colour perception Chapter 6 : Learning Pavlov’s Classical conditioning  Classical conditioning: type of learned response that occurs when a neutral object comes to elicit a reflexive response when it is associated with a stimulus that already produces that response.  Unconditioned response (UR): a response that does not have to be learned, such as a reflex. For example a song salivating when there is food in its mouth  Unconditioned stimulus (US): a stimulus that elicit a response, such as a reflex, without any prior learning. For example, food placed in a dogs mouth  Conditioned response (CS): a stimulus that elicits a response only after learning has taken place. For example a bell right after it has been paired along with food  Conditioned response (CR): A response to a conditioned stimulus that has been learned. For example, a dog salivating when it hears a bell right. Is usually weaker than the UR (e.g less salivation) Operant (or instrumental) Conditioning:  Operant conditioning: learning process in which the consequences of an action determine the likelihood that it will be performed in the future  Positive reinforcement: increases the probability of a behaviors being repeated by the administration of a (positive rewarding) stimulus  Negative reinforcement: Increases the probability of a behavior being repeated by the removal of a negate adversive stimulus  Positive punishment: decreases the probably of a behavious being repeated by the administration of a negate punishing stimulus  Negative punishment: decreases the probability of a behavrious being repeated by the removal of a postitive pleasurable stimulus Chapter 7: Attention and memory: pay attention to last part of this chapter  Maintenance rehearsal: keeps information in short term memory  Sensory memory: lasts a fraction of a second  Encoding: Process of moving information from short term to long term memory  Long term memory: relatively permanent, unlimited capacity  Short term or working memory: Remains for about 20 to 30 seconds until actively rehearsed  Attention: Required for information to move from sensory to short term memory When do people forget: Transience is caused by interference: Forgetting over time occurs because of interference from both old and new information Blocking is temporary: The tip-of-the-tongue phenomenon is a person’s temporary trouble retrieving the right word, usually due to interference from a similar word. Absentmindedness Results from shallow encoding: Inattentive or shallow processing causes memory failure Amnesia is a deficit in Long-term memory: Both injury and disease can result in amnesia, either the inability to recall past memories (retrograde), or the inability to form new memories (anterograde)  Forgetting: The inability to retrieve memory from long-term storage  Transience: The pattern of forgetting over time.  Proactive interference: When prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information  Retroactive interference: When new information inhibits the ability to remember old information. so interferes with memory for old information.  Blocking: the temporary inability to remember something that is known; “tip of the tongue” phenomenon  Absentmindedness: the inattentive or shallow encoding of events (failing to pay sufficient attention when encoding memories)  east Asians attend to changes I the background  where north Americans attend more carefully to changes in a central figure.  Amnesia: Deficits in long-term memory that result from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma.  Retrograde amnesia: The condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or even personal information “retero” so old  Anterograde amnesia: an inability to form new memories  Flashbulb memories: vivid memories for the circumstances in which one first learned of a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event. Types of long term memory systems:  Implicit memory: The system underlying unconscious memories  Explicit memory: the processes involved when people remember specific information. i.e the system underlying conscious memories.  Declarative memory: The cognitive information retrieved from explicit memory; knowledge that can be declared  Episodic memory: Memory for one’s personal past experiences. Eg your memory of what you did last weekend  Semantic memory: Memory of knowledge about he world. E.g your memory that Barack obabma is the president of the United States  Procedural memory: Type of unconscious (implicit) memory inlving motor skills and behavioral habits. E.g your memory of how to drive a car, tie your shoes, or do the Macarena Chapter 8 Thinking: 341-386 Models of how we mentally represent concepts:  Concept: A mental representation that groups or categorizes objects, events, or relations around common themes  Defining attribute model: proposes that a concept is characterized by a list of features that are necessary to determine if an object is a member of the category. E.g for most people. The defining features of a bird would include : flies, has wings, lay eggs. According to this model, all the features are equally important  Protoype model: An approach to object categorization that is based on the premise that within each category, some members are more representative than others. In thinking about a category we tend to think in terms of the best example, or prototype for that category.  Exemplar model: proposes that information stored about the members of a category is used to determine category membership. There is no single best representation, instead all the examples or exemplars of category members form the concept How does the mind represent information: Mental images are analogical representations: thoughts can take the form of visual images. The primary visual cortex is activated proportionately to the size of an image in the minds eye; therefore mental visual imagery involves the same underlying brain processes involved in seeing the external world. Symbolic knowledge affects the ways we use visual imagery. Concepts are symbolic representations: concepts are mental representations of subtypes of broad knowledge categories; the concept of cat, for example is subcategory of animals. Concepts may be formed by defining attributes, prototypes or exemplars. Many categories have fuzzy boundaries; we have no simple way of telling a cat from a dog or rat, for example, since they are conceptually similar (four legged, hairy, animals) Schemas organize useful information about environments: We develop schemas based on our real-life experiences. Scripts are schemas that allow us to form expectations about the sequence of events in a given context. How do we make decidsions and solve problems: People use deductive and inductive reasoning: Deductive reasoning proceeds from a general statement to specific applications. Syllogisms are formal structures of deduction. For example: if all psychology textbooks are fun to read and this is a psychology textbook then this text book will be fun to read. Inductive reasoning proceeds from specific instances to general conclusions. For example: if you read many psychology textbooks and find them interesting, you can infer that psychology books are generally interesting. Decision making often involved heuristics: expected utility models assume people behave according to logical process, such as always selecting the outcome that will yield the greatest reward. Descriptive models highlight reasoning shortcoming, specifically the use of mental shortcuts (i.e heuristics)that sometimes lead to faulty decisions. We select information to confirm our conclusions to avoid loss or regret or both, and to be consistent with problems framing. Problem solving Acheives goals: Problem solving involves reaching a goal, which usually is broken down into subgoals. Insights come suddenly, when we see elements of a problem in new ways. Restructuring aids solutions; mental sets and functions fixedness inhibit solutions. How do we understand intelligence? 366 – 385 Intelligence is assessed with psychometric tests: The Binet-Simon intelligence test was the first modern test of mental ability and led to the concept of IQ as a ratio of mental age and chronological age. This test was later normed to a distribution with a mean of 100 and standard deviation of 15; therefore, average ability is between 85 and 115. The question of the validity of the intelligence tests persist and one significant criticism is cultural bias. Other ways of assessing intelligence also have the potential for bias, as when interview questions are ambiguous.  Intelligence: the human ability to use knowledge, solve problems, and understand complex ideas, learns quickly and adapt to environmental changes.  psychometric approach: how people perform on standardized achievement tests.  cognitive approach: particular mental abilities that allow people to operal intelligently  biological approach: how brain processes information, and effect of genes and environment  Mental age: An assessment of a childs intellectual standing relative to that of his or her peers; determined by a comparison of the childs test score with the average score for children of each chronological age.  Intelligence quotient (IQ): the number computed by dividing a childs estimated mental age by the child’s chronological age and then multiplying this number by 100.  General intelligence involved multiple components: Charles Spearman concluded that a general intelligence component exists, known as g. Fluid intelligence is involved when people solve novel problems, whereas crystallized intelligence is accumulated knowledge retrieved from memory. Howard Gardner has proposed a theory of multiple intelligences that include linguistic, mathematical/logical, spatial, bodily kinesthetic, intrapersonal, and interpersonal abilities. Robert Sternberg has proposed that there are 3 types of intelligence: analytical, creative, and practical. Emotional intelligence is the ability to understand emotions and use the appropriately.  general intelligence (g): the idea that one general factor underlies all mental abilities.  Fluid intelligence: information processing in novel or complex circumstances.  Cystallized intelligence: knowledge acquired through experience and the ability to use the knowledge  Multiple intelligences: the idea that people can show different skills in a variety of different domains.  Emotional intelligence(EQ): a form of social intelligence that emphasizes the ability to perceive, understand, manage and use emotions to guide thoughts and actions. Intelligence is associated with cognitive performance: Speed of mental processing (e.g, reaction time, inspection time) is part of intelligence. The relationship of working memory to intelligence seems to involved attention. The size and activity of the brain’s frontal lobes are related to qualities of intelligence, but since brain size is altered by experience, we cannot infer cause of this correlation. Genes and environment influence intelligence: Behavioral genetics has revealed genes’ substantial influence in setting the limits of the expression of intelligence. Environmental factors, including nutrition, parenting, schooling and intellectual opportunities generally seem to establish where IQ falls within the genetic limits. Group differences in intelligence have multiple determinants: One of the most contentious areas in psychology concerns group differences in intelligence. Females and males score differently, on average on different measure of intelligence, with some measures favoring males and other favoring females. Thus there is no overall sex difference in intelligence. Race differences in intelligence are confounded with a multitude of environmental differences, including income, discrimination, and health care. Additionally, many scientists question the idea of race as referring to anything more than a small number of human differences, such as skin color.  Stereotype threat: Apprehension about confirming negative stereotypes related to ones own group. Chapter 9: Emotion Ch. 9: pp. 406 – 414 (sex)  James- lange theory: Emotional experience is determined by the perception of our bodily responses.  Cannon- Bard theory: The mind and body operate independently and simultaneously to determine our emotional experience.  Schachter two- factor theory: We search for an explanation for our bodily reactions, and this explanation is key to our emotional experience. Chapter 10 health and wellbeing Ch. 10: pp. 439 – 456 (stress)
  Placebo effect: a drug or treatment unrelated to the particular problem of the person who receives it, may make the recipient feel better because the person believes the drug or treatment is effective  Stressor: an environmental event or stimulus that threatens an organism  Coping response: any response an organism makes to avoid, escape from or minimize an aversive stimulus. Two general categories of coping are problem-focused coping and emotion focused coping  General adaptation syndrome: a consistent pattern of response to stress that consists of three stages: alarm (emergency response) , resistance (defenses maximized) and exhaustion (system fails) Hypothalamic pituitary adrenal (HPA) axis: stress full event  Brain  hypothalamus (chemical message)  pituitary gland (hormones)  adrenal glands  cortisol Can a positive attitude keep us healthy: 468 – 477 Being positive has health benefits: a range of evidence shows that there are health benefits to having a positive, optimistic outlook. Social support and social integration are associated with good health: social support is critical to good health because when others care about us, they provide material and psychological support. They can help us reinterpret events more positively. Socially integrated individuals have meaningful relations with others.  Social integration: the quality of a person’s social relationships Trust and health are related across cultures: oxytocin, some times called the trust hormone is secreted during trusting encounters; it is involved in infant/parent attachment and love relationships.  Buffering hypothesis: the idea that other people can provide direct support in helping individuals cope with stressful events. Spirituality contributes to well being: Being spiritual can give meaning to people lives, members of religious communities also provide physical assistance to one another and support healthy behaviors. Chapter 11: human development: Attachment and the Strange situation test:  Disorganized: mixed responses when caregiver leaves and returns  Secure: upset when caregiver leaves, but easily comforted upon return  Anxious- Ambivalent: extremely upset when caregiver leaves and rejects the caregiver upon their return  Avoidant: A little distress when caregiver leaves, avoids the caregiver upon their return Paiget’s stages of cognitive development: 1) Sensorimotor 2) Preoperational 3) Concrete operational 4) Formal operational Chapter 12: social psychology: Ch. 12: pp. 548 – 556; pp. 562 – 564 (prejudice, obedience)  Attributions: peoples causal explanations for why events or actions occur  Fundamental attribution error: The tendency to overemphasize personal factors and underestimate situational factors in explaining behavior  Actor/ observer discrepancy: People expect others’ behaviors to correspond with their dispositions, however when we make attributions about ourselves we tend to focus on situations rather than personal factors  Self-serving bias: The tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external
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