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PSY332 (Fall 2013) Final Notes.docx

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Maja Djikic

PSY322H1F Chapter 9 Summary: Leadership What is Leadership? leadership: the influence that particular individuals exert on the goal achievement of others in an organizational context strategic leadership: involving the ability to anticipate, envision, maintain flexibility, think strategically, and work with others to initiate changes that will create a viable future Are Leaders Born? The Trait Theory of Leadership trait theory: leadership depends on personal qualities/traits of leader - certain traits related (weakly) o stronger for affective and relational measures than performance-related measures - problems include o determining direction of correlation o ambiguities surrounding causal mechanisms o situational factors o bias and discrimination traits: individual characteristics such as physical attributes, intellectual ability, and personality The Behaviour of Leaders consideration: extent to which a leader is approachable and shows personal concern and respect for employees - more generally related to follower satisfaction, motivation, leader effectiveness initiating structure: degree to which a leader concentrates on group goal attainment - more generally related to leader job performance and group performance leader reward behaviour: use of compliments, tangible benefits, and deserved special treatment leader punishment behaviour: use of reprimands or unfavourable task assignments and the active withholding of rewards (both must be contingent on employee behaviour) Situational Theories of Leadership - effectiveness of leadership style is contingent on setting Fiedler’s contingency theory: association between leadership orientation and group effectiveness is contingent on how favourable the situation is for exerting influence - situation considered favourable when good leader-member relations, high task structure, and when leader has been granted formal authority by the organization to tell others what to do least preferred co-worker: way of measuring leadership orientation; co-worker with whom a leader had a difficult time accomplishing a task (high = relationship oriented vs. task oriented) o not a measure of consideration or initiating structure (behaviours vs. attitudes) o task orientation best when very favourable or very unfavourable o relationship orientation good for making the best out of a stress-provoking, but not impossible situation cognitive resource theory: focuses on conditions in which a leader’s cognitive resources (intelligence, expertise, and experience) contribute to effective leadership o intelligence depends on directiveness, group support, and stressfulness House’s path-goal theory: concerned with the situations under which various leader behaviours (directive, supportive, participative, achievement oriented) are most effective - an effective leader forms a connection between employee and organizational goals - for job satisfaction and leader acceptance, leader behaviour must be perceived as immediately satisfying or leading to future satisfaction - to promote employee effort, leaders must make rewards dependent on performance and ensure clear picture of how to achieve these goals - two primary classes of situational factors o employee characteristics o environmental factors Participative Leadership: Involving Employees in Decisions participative leadership: involving employees in making work-related decisions - potential advantages o motivation o quality o acceptance - potential disadvantages o time and energy o loss of power o lack of receptivity/knowledge - Vroom and Jago’s situational model of participation o AI, AII, CI, CII, GI, GII o quality requirement o commitment requirement o leader’s information o problem structure o commitment probability o goal congruence o subordinate conflict o subordinate information Leader-Member Exchange (LMX) Theory LMX theory: focuses on the quality of the relationship that develops between a leader and an employee social exchange theory: individuals who are treated favourably by others feel obliged to reciprocate by responding positively and returning that favourable treatment in some manner o high quality relationship with supervisor will generate extra effort and higher commitment/performance  high mutual influence and obligation, trust, loyalty, open communication, respect  challenging tasks and opportunities, greater latitude and discretion, task-related resources, and recognition Transactional and Transformational Leadership Theory transactional leadership: based on straightforward exchange relationship between the leader and the followers management by exception: involves leader taking corrective action on the basis of the results of leader- follower transactions transformational leadership: provides followers with new vision that instills true commitment - intellectual stimulation - individualized consideration - inspirational motivation - charisma: ability to command strong loyalty and devotion from followers and thus have the potential for strong influence among them Global Leadership global leadership: set of leadership capabilities required to function effectively in different cultures and the ability to cross language, social, economic, and political borders - unbridled inquisitiveness - personal character (emotional connection and uncompromising integrity) - duality - savvy New and Emerging Theories of Leadership empowering leadership: implementing conditions that enable power to be shared with employees ethical leadership: demonstration of normatively appropriate conduct through personal action and interpersonal relationships - communicate clear and consistent positive ethics message from the top - create and embrace opportunities for everyone in the organization to communicate positive ethics, values, practices - ensure consequences for ethical and unethical conduct authentic leadership: positive form of leadership that involves being true to oneself - self-awareness - relational transparency - balanced processing - internalized moral perspective servant leadership: involves going beyond one’s own self-interest and having a genuine concern to serve others and a motivation to lead - empowering and developing people - humility - authenticity - interpersonal acceptance - providing direction - stewardship Culture and Leadership - Global Leadership and Organizational Behaviour Effectiveness o performance orientation o assertiveness o future orientation o humane orientation o institutional collectivism o in-group collectivism o gender egalitarianism o power distance o uncertainty avoidance implicit leadership theory: individuals hold a set of beliefs about the kinds of attributes, personality characteristics, skills, and behaviours that contribute to or impede outstanding leadership (culturally endorsed implicit leadership theory) - global leadership dimensions o charismatic/value-based o team-oriented o participative o humane-oriented o autonomous o self-protective - universal facilitators of leadership effectiveness o trustworthiness, sense of justice, honesty o foresight o encouraging, motivating, building confidence, positive, dynamism o communicative, informed, coordinator, team integrator - universal impediments o loner/asocial o irritable/uncooperative o imposing views on others - culturally contingent endorsement of leader attributes o individualism o status consciousness o risk-taking Gender and Leadership - women more transformational, engaged in more of the contingent reward behaviours associated with transactional - men more transactional laissez-faire leadership: involves avoidance or absence of leadership glass ceiling: barrier preventing women from advancing to senior leadership positions in organizations - problems women face include o prejudice o resistance  agentic: dedication, charisma, intelligence, determination, aggression  communal: caring, sensitivity, honesty, understanding, compassion o issues of leadership style o demands of family life o underinvestment in social capital Chapter 10 Summary: Communication What is Communication? communication: process by which information is exchanged between a sender and a receiver - thinking, encoding, transmitting, perceiving, decoding, understanding effective communication: communication whereby the right people receive the right information in a timely manner Basics of Organizational Communication chain of command: lines of authority and formal reporting relationships - deficiencies include o informal communication o filtering: tendency for a message to be watered down or stopped during transmission o slowness downward communication: information that flows from the top toward the bottom upward communication: information that flows from the bottom toward the top horizontal communication: information that flows between departments or functional units, usually as a means of coordinating effort Voice, Silence, and the Mum Effect voice: constructive expression of disagreement or concern about work unit or organizational practices psychological safety: shared belief that it is safe to take social risks mum effect: tendency to avoid communicating unfavourable news to others The Grapevine grapevine: organization’s informal communication network - at least 75% of organization-related information is correct, whereas personal and emotionally charged information tends to be distorted rumour: unverified belief that is in general circulation The Verbal Language of Work jargon: specialized language used by job holders or members of particular occupations or organizations The Non-Verbal Language of Work non-verbal communication: transmission of messages by some medium other than speech or writing body language: non-verbal communication by means of a sender’s bodily motions, facial expressions, or physical location - props, artifacts, and costumes Gender Differences in Communication - originate from childhood; girls use conversation to develop relationships and networks of connection/intimacy, whereas boys view conversations as a way for them to achieve status within groups and to maintain independence - key differences in communication styles and rituals that often place women in ‘one-down’ position (vs. ‘one-up’) o getting credit o confidence and boasting o asking questions o apologies o feedback o compliments o ritual opposition o managing up and down o indirectness - should be able to adjust communication style to suit situation Cross-Cultural Communication - language differences - non-verbal communication across cultures o facial expressions o gestures o gaze o touch - etiquette and politeness - social conventions - cultural context: cultural information that surrounds a communication episode (high vs. low) Computer-Mediated Communication information richness: potential information-carrying capacity of a communication medium - degree of synchronization - presence of nonverbal and paraverbal cues computer-mediated communication: forms of communication that rely on computer technology to facilitate information exchange Personal Approaches to Improving Communication - basic principles of effective communication o take the time o be accepting o don’t confuse person with problem o say what you feel (congruence: words, thoughts, feelings, actions all contain the same message) o active listening: technique for improving accuracy of information reception by paying close attention to the sender o give timely and supportive feedback o assume differences until you know otherwise o recognize differences within cultures o watch language Organizational Approaches to Improving Communication - provide specific/detailed explanation in truthful/sincere/respectful/sensitive style - 360-degree feedback: performance appraisal that uses the input of supervisors, employees, peers, and clients or customers of the appraised individual - employee survey: an anonymous questionnaire that enables employees to state their candid opinions and attitudes about an organization and its practices (and feedback) - suggestion systems: programs designed to enhance upward communication by soliciting ideas for improved work operations from employees; query systems - telephone hotlines, intranets, and webcasts - management training Chapter 11 Summary: Decision-Making What is Decision-Making? decision-making: process of developing a commitment to some course of action - choice amongst several action alternatives - process involving more than final choice amongst alternatives - ‘commitment’ usually involves some type of resources problem: perceived gap between existing state and desired state well-structured problem: problem for which the existing state is clear, desired state is clear, and how to get from one state to the other is fairly obvious program: standardized way of solving a problem (decision-making is time consuming and prone to error; organizations attempt to program process for well-structured problems)  problem identification  solution  rules, routines, SOPs, rules of thumb; can be informal or formal  programs are only as good as the decision-making process that led to their implementation ill-structured problem: problem for which the existing and desired states are unclear and the method of getting to the desired state is unknown o generally unique, complex, involving high degree of uncertainty o frequently arouse controversy/conflict o information gathering  solutions  evaluation  decision  implement  monitoring The Compleat Decision Maker – A Rational Decision-Making Model perfect rationality: decision strategy that is completely informed, perfectly logical, and oriented toward economic gain bounded rationality: decision strategy that relies on limited information and that reflects time constraints and political considerations framing: aspects of the presentation of information about a problem that are assumed by decision-makers cognitive biases: tendencies to acquire and process information in an error-prone way - difficulties in problem identification o perceptual defence o problems defined in terms of functional specialty (marketing will focus on marketing fixes) o problems defined in terms of solution o problem diagnosed in terms of symptoms (low morale because of poor pay vs. boring work) confirmation bias: tendency to seek out information that conforms to one’s own definition of or solution to a problem information overload: reception of more information than is necessary to make effective decisions+ maximization: choice of the decision alternative with the greatest expected value anchoring effect: inadequate adjustment of subsequent estimates from an initial estimate that serves as an anchor satisficing: establishing an adequate level of acceptability for a solution to a problem and then screening solutions until one that exceeds this level is found sunk costs: permanent losses of resources incurred as a result of a decision escalation of commitment: tendency to invest additional resources in an apparently failing course of action hindsight: tendency to review decision-making process to find what was done right or wrong Stage Perfect Rationality Bounded Rationality Perceptual defence, jump to solutions, Problem Identification Easy, accurate perception of gaps attention to symptoms rather than that constitute problems. problems, mood affects memory. Information Search Free, fast, right amount obtained. Slow, costly, reliance on flawed memory, too little or too much. Development of Alternative Can conceive of all. Not all are known. Solutions Ultimate value of each known, Potential ignorance/miscalculation of Evaluation of Alternative Solutions probability of each known, only values and probabilities, criteria criterion is economic gain. include political factors, mood. Solution Choice Maximizes. Satisfices. Solution Implementation Considered in evaluation of May be difficult owing to reliance on alternatives. others. Solution Evaluation Objective, according to previous May involve justification, escalation steps. to recover sunk costs, faulty hindsight. Group Decision-Making - reasons to employ groups to make organizational decisions o decision quality (more vigilant, more ideas, evaluate ideas better) o decision acceptance and commitment o diffusion of responsibility: ability of group members to share the burden of the negative consequences of a poor decision - disadvantages of group decision-making o time o conflict o domination o groupthink: capacity for group pressure to damage the mental efficiency, reality testing, and moral judgement of decision-making groups  symptoms  illusion of invulnerability  rationalization  illusion of morality  stereotypes of outsiders  pressure for conformity  self-censorship  illusion of unanimity  mindguards  should focus on good decision processes risky shift: tendency for groups to make riskier decisions than the average risk initially advocated by their individual members conservative shift: tendency for groups to make less risky decisions than the average risk initially advocated by their individual members Improving Decision-Making in Organizations - techniques to reduce biases and errors o training discussion leaders o stimulating and managing controversy  devil’s advocate: person appointed to identify and challenge the weaknesses of a proposed plan or strategy o traditional and electronic brainstorming: attempt to increase the number of creative solution alternatives to problems by focusing on idea generation rather than evaluation  electronic brainstorming: use of computer-mediated technology to improve traditional brainstorming practices o nominal group technique: structured group decision-making technique in which ideas are generated without group interaction and then systematically evaluated by the group o Delphi technique: method of pooling a large number of expert judgements by using a series of increasingly refined questionnaires Chapter 12 Summary: Power, Politics, and Ethics What is Power? power: capacity to influence others who are in a state of dependence The Bases of Individual Power legitimate power: derived from person’ position or job in an organization reward power: derived from the ability to provide positive outcomes and prevent negative outcomes coercive power: derived from the use of punishment and threat referent power: derived from being well liked by others expert power: derived from having special information or expertise that is valued by an organization How Do People Obtain Power? - doing the right things o extraordinary activities o visible activities relevant activities - cultivating the right people o outsiders o subordinates o peers o superiors Empowerment – Putting Power Where it is Needed empowerment: giving people the authority, opportunity, and motivation to take initiative and solve organizational problems Influence Tactics – Putting Power to Work influence tactics: tactics used to convert power into actual influence over others - tactics include (use depends on bases of power and situation) o assertiveness o ingratiation o rationality o exchange o upward appeal o coalition formation Who Wants Power? - most effective managers (institutional > personal power and affiliative) o have high n Pow o use power to achieve organizational goals o adopt participative or ‘coaching’ leadership style o relatively unconcerned with how much others like them Controlling Strategic Contingencies – How Subunits Obtain Power subunit power: degree of power held by various organizational subunits, such as departments strategic contingencies: critical factors affecting organizational effectiveness that are controlled by a key subunit o conditions under which subunits can control strategic contingencies  scarcity (more power when able to secure scarce resources)  uncertainty (more power when able to cope, provide greater control)  centrality  substitutability Organizational Politics – Using and Abusing Power organizational politics: pursuit of self-interest in an organization, whether or not this self-interest corresponds to organizational goals Influence Ends Influence Means Organizationally Sanctioned Not Sanctioned by Organization Organizationally Sanctioned Nonpolitical job behaviour. Organizationally dysfunctional political behaviour. Not Sanctioned by Organization Political behaviour potentially Organizationally dysfunctional functional to the organization. political behaviour. - political manoeuvring more common at middle and upper levels - some subunits more prone to politicking - some issues more likely to stimulate political activity - scarce resources, uncertainty, important issues provoke political behaviour political skill: ability to understand others at work and to use that knowledge to influence others to act in ways that enhance one’s personal or organizational objectives - four facets o social astuteness o interpersonal influence o apparent sincerity o networking: establishing good relations with key organizational members and outsiders to accomplish one’s goals  maintaining contacts  socializing  engaging in professional activities  participating in community activities  increasing internal visibility Machiavellianism: set of cynical beliefs about human nature, morality, and the permissibility of using various tactics to achieve one’s ends - defensive tactics o stalling o overconforming o buck passing o buffing o scapegoating Ethics in Organizations ethics: systematic thinking about the moral consequences (potential harm for stakeholders) of decisions stakeholders: people inside or outside of an organization who have the potential to be affected by organizational decisions - seven themes defining moral standards for decision-making (occupationally diverse managers) o honest communication o fair treatment o special consideration o fair competition o responsibility to organization o corporate social responsibility o respect for law - causes of unethical behaviour o gain o role conflict o strong organizational identification o competition o personality o organizational and industry culture o whistle-blowing: disclosure of illegitimate practices by a current or former organizational member to some person or organization that may be able to take action to correct these practices o sexual harassment  recommendations  examine characteristics of deaf ear organizations  foster management support and education  stay vigilant  take immediate action  create a state-of-the-art policy  establish clear reporting procedures Chapter 13 Summary: Conflict and Stress What is Conflict? interpersonal conflict: process that occurs when one person, group, or organizational subunit frustrates the goal attainment of another Causes of Organizational Conflict - group identification and intergroup bias - interdependence - differences in power, status, and culture - ambiguity - scarce resources Types of Conflict relationship conflict: interpersonal tensions among individuals that have to do with their relationship per se, not the task at hand task conflict: disagreements about the nature of the work to be done - occasionally can be beneficial process conflict: disagreements about how work should be organized and accomplished Conflict Dynamics - ‘winning’ becomes more important than developing good solution - parties begin to conceal information or pass on distorted information - each side becomes more cohesive, strict conformity is expected, and deviants who speak of conciliation are punished - contact with opposite party is discouraged except under formalized, restricted conditions - while the opposite party is negatively stereotyped, the image of one’s own position is boosted - more aggressive people who are skilled at engaging in conflict may emerge as leaders Modes of Managing Conflict Competing: maximizes Collaborating: assertiveness and maximizes both minimizes cooperation assertiveness and cooperation Compromise: combines Assertiveness intermediate levels of assertiveness and cooperation Avoiding: low Accommodating: assertiveness of one’s cooperates with the other own interests and low party while not asserting cooperation with the other one’s own interests party Cooperativeness Managing Conflict with Negotiation negotiation: a decision-making process among interdependent parties who do not share identical preferences distributive negotiation: win-lose negotiation in which a fixed amount of assets is divided between parties o single issue negotiation (consisting of targets and resistance points, the intersection of which is the aspiration and settlement range) o tactics  threats and promises  firmness vs. concessions  persuasion integrative negotiation: win-win negotiation that assumes that mutual problem solving can enlarge the assets to be divided between parties o tactics  copious information exchange  framing differences as opportunities  cutting costs  increasing resources  superordinate goals: attractive outcomes that can be achieved only by collaboration - third party involvement o mediation (facilitation of negotiated agreement) o arbitration (authority given to dictate terms of settlement of conflict)  conventional vs. final offer Is All Conflict Bad? - conflict  change  adaptation  survival conflict stimulation: strategy of increasing conflict to motivate change A Model of Stress in Organizations stressors: environmental events or conditions that have the potential to induce stress stress: psychological reaction to the demands inherent in a stressor that has the potential to make a person feel tense or anxious stress reactions: behavioural, psychological, and physiological consequences of stress (can lead to direct confrontation or anxiety reduction) - personality (related to which stressors are perceived as well as reactions that occur) o locus of control: set of beliefs about whether one’s behaviour is controlled mainly by internal or external forces o type A behaviour pattern: includes aggressiveness, ambitiousness, competitiveness, hostility, impatience, and a sense of time urgency o negative affectivity: propensity to view the world, including oneself and other people, in a negative light  predisposition to perceive stressors  hypersensitivity to existing stressors  tendency to gravitate toward stressful jobs  tendency to provoke stress through negativity  use of passive, indirect coping styles that avoid real sources of stress Stressors in Organizational Life - executive and managerial stressors o role overload: requirement for too many tasks to be performed in too short a time period o heavy responsibility - operative level stressors o poor physical working conditions o poor job design boundary roles: positions in which organizational members are required to interact with members of other organizations or with the public burnout: syndrome of emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and reduced self-efficacy work engagement: positive work-related state of mind that is characterized by vigour, dedication, and absorption job demands-resources model: specifies how job demands can cause burnout and job resources cause engagement - general stressors o interpersonal conflict  bullying: repeated negative behaviour directed toward one or more individuals of lower power or status tha
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