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Psych Exam Notes.pdf

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Psych Exam Notes Forgetting Forgetting: inability to retrieve memory from long term storage  Normal forgetting help us remember and use important information  Ebbinghaus = methods of savings  shows how forgetting happens rapidly, it would take less time and effort to relearn something you were taught but forgot how to do instead of learning it for the first time difference b/w the original learning and relearnings is savings  Schacter = SEVEN SINS OF MEMORY 1. Transcience 2. Absentmindedness 3. Blocking 4. Misattribution 5. Suggestibility 6. Bias 7. Persistence  post traumatic 1,2,3 are forgetting 1. Transience  pattern of forgetting over time - Forgetting = memory decay in NS  unused memory forgotten - But really: because of interference from other information - Interference from other information can lead to forgetting by PROACTIVE interference vs RETROACTIVE INTERFERENCE - Proactive = OLD info inhibits the ability to remember NEW ones (old phone # blocks remembering new one) - Retroactive = NEW inhibits OLD (new phone # makes forget old one) 2. Blocking  person TEMPORARILY is unable to remember something - Tip of the Tongue phenomena  Brown and McNeill - Blocking occurs because of interference from other words that are similar in some way (sound/meaning) 3. Absentmindedness  inattentive or shallow encoding of events - Ex. Forgetting where you put your keys or forgetting name of person you met 5 mins ago, change blindness too - Major cause of absentmindedness is failing to pay attention when encoding memory - Asians were more likely to notice changes in the background of images (collectivistic) while Americans more likely to notice changes in the foreground  therefore, there are cultural variations in attentiveness to information  Amnesia  deficit in LTM by injury or disease to brain - 2 Types: 1. Retrograde  lose past memories for events, facts, or people 2. Anterograde  lose ability to make new memories (H.M) - Amnesia = damage to the MEDIAL TEMPORAL LOBE and also damage to other subcortical structures (thalamus) - Korsakoff’s syndrome = amnesia by alcoholism Consciousness Consciousness  moment by moment subjective experiences…reflect current thoughts or paying attention to immediate surroundings  2 components of consciousness: 1. CONTENTS  the things that we are conscious of 2. LEVEL  coma v. sleep v. awake  Also differentiated by consciously doing something vs unconsciously  Descartes  mind is separate from the brain  dualism …but this was rejected because the mind and the brain are inseparable (neurons)  activity of neurons cause consciousness  Qualia  properties of our subjective experience, like perception of things  Experiment: - Tong studied relationship between consciousness and neural response - Found that neural activity in temporal lobe’s FUSIFORM FACE AREA when noticed the face but activity increased in the TEMPORAL LOBE areas with object recognition when noticed the house - Different types of sensory info processed by different brain regions  Consciousness is not steady (tired, sleeping, awake) and it can be altered by drugs (caffeine)  Driving and walking are called automatic tasks because we can do them without conscious awareness  Controlled processings are those that need more conscious efforts and are slower to accomplish  snowing while driving, more conscious and careful.  Brain damage that leaves people in a coma for a very long time is called persistent vegetative state  but brain still processes info in this state  Between vegetative state and full consciousness is minimally conscious state  make some movements like following an object with their eyes or trying to communicate  Doctors will cut connections of brain regions to stop the spread of seizures to other brain areas - The brain area most likely to be cut w/o damaging the grey matter is the corpus callosum  results in no connection between the two hemispheres of the brain (split brain ) - LEFT HEMISPHERE = LANGUAGE - RIGHT HEMISPHERE = SPATIAL RELATIONS  With split brain, people could identify and claim to only the image coming to the right eye was shown and not the left eye  because right side = left hemi and need language to say you saw it.  BUT if shown a picture of a spoon, they can use their left hand (controlled by mute right hemisphere) to pick up a spoon (spatial relationships)  THEREFORE, splitting the brain creates two half brains, each with own perception, thoughts and consciousness  Left hemispheres ability to make world that makes sense is called the interpreter  shovel and chicken experiment  Maximum reward experiment and 70% of the time the red light flashes  why do humans try to figure out patterns? Because the left hemisphere interpreter tries to come up and figure out patterns that may not exist  Unconscious cues = subliminal messages  they can affect our cognition  subliminal messages are perception stimuli that are not processed strong enough to reach our conscious awareness  Sometimes making decisions unconsciously rather than consciously gives the best outcome  Jam experiment and tasting  Schooler = Verbal overshadowing  Blindsight: condition where person who has some blindness because of damage to the visual system continues to show evidence of some sight, but is unaware of seeing at all  when a dot is moving in their blindspot, they will guess better than average the direction that it is travelling.  Patient who was blind in visual perception cortical but amygdala could still recognize emotions of faces.  Global workspace model  consciousness arises as a function of which brain circuits are active Altered Consciousness Altered states of Consciousness  increased/decreased level of self-awareness, disturbances in sense of control of physical actions  hypnosis, meditation, immersion in an action  Hypnosis  social interaction where person responds to suggestions and experiences changes in memory, perception and actions - After hypnosis, person will experience changes in memory, perception and actions ( post-hypnotic suggestion) - Hypnosis only works for people that are highly suggestible (absorbed in activity, not distracted and high imagination) - Sociocognitive theory of hypnosis: the person being hypnotized does not have an altered state of consciousness, rather they are playing the role of a hypnotized person - Dissociation Theory of Hypnosis: hypnotic state IS an altered state where conscious awareness is DISSOCIATED from rest of conscious aspects  MORE SUPPORTED (black and white images creating colour perception areas activate when hypnotized) and (Stroop effect not working on hypnotized) - Uses of hypnosis? Hypnotic analgesia  PAIN REDUCTION  reduces persons INTERPRETATION of pain rather than diminishing it (feel sensation, but are deattached from the sensation)  research found that it does not change sensory processing of pain but rather alters the brain regions needed to interpret pain (DISSOCATION THEORY)  Meditation  mental procedure that focuses attention on an external object or a sense of awareness - There are two forms of meditation: 1. Concentrative meditation  focus attention on ONE thing like breathing (MANTRA) 2. Mindfulness meditation  let thoughts flow freely, paying attention to them but not reacting to them - Transcendental meditation (TM)  meditating with concentration for 20 mins 2x a day  Runner’s high = random increase in energy when exercising, caused by release of endorphins  but also occurs because of a shift of consciousness  Flow  activity that has no reward but is so fucking satisfying  playing music or sports (they make life worth living) Social Factors  Social Facilitation: presence of others enhance performance  Zajonc = model of social facilitation in 3 steps: 1. Animals are genetically predisposed to become aroused by presence of others of own species 2. Arousal leads to emitting dominant response (response most likely to be performed) PRESENCE OF OTHERS  AROUSAL  ENHANCEMENT OF DOMINANT RESPONSE  Correct response the performance is enhanced, incorrect response the performance is impaired  Social loafing: peoples efforts are shared so no one ind. feels responsible for group output (less effort when working in a group than individually).  Deindividuation: people are not self aware and not paying attention to personal standards (losing individuality when becoming part of a group)  losing self-awareness is losing values and morals (crowds and riots)  Risky-shift effect: groups performing more risky actions than an individual by themselves would  Group Polarization: groups enhancing the initial attitudes of members who already agree  discussion makes juries enhance already attitudes of persons guilt or innocence  extreme case of polarization is group think  doing poor decisions to keep cohesion of group (Bush and Iraq War)  group think happens when the group is under pressure, threatened, or bias in certain direction  Conformity and Sherif’s AUTOKINETIC EFFECT stationary point of light appears to move when viewed in totally dark env.  when asked how far they thought the light was, the answers ranged a lot  but when put together, they all agreed on specific distance  shows that in ambiguous case, people react same way as others (but this experiment was a SUBJECTIVE one)  Asch did an OBJECTIVE experiment with 5 confederates and one naïve  length of line and conformity to obvious wrong answer. Things that Decrease Conformity? 1. Group Size  increasing the size is increasing the conformity, but it levels off at some point 2. Lack of Unanimity  if one confederate gives the right answer, no conform Aggression Aggression = behaviours with an intention to harm someone else (children more physical aggression than adults) Biological Factors  The SEPTUM, AMYGDALA, HYPOTHALAMUS lead to changes of aggression  Rhesus monkeys and removing their amygdala  friendly and curious to normally threatening stimulus  condition called Kluver-Bucy syndrome  SEROTONIN important for control of aggression  increase serotonin = decrease aggression Individual Factors  Dollard and frustration-aggression hypothesis  Berkowitz and cognitive-neoassociationistic model  frustration leads to aggression by bringing out negative emotions (any negative emotion can lead to aggression, not just frustration)  Aggression is evolutionary, but extent and tendency is cultural based  Culture of honour: belief that men need to protect reputation by physical aggression  shows why some cultures more violent than others Helping Others  Humans are pro-social  tending to benefit others  due to empathy and inborn predisposition  Altruism  helping others without any reward - Why? (since non-adaptive)  Hamilton and idea of inclusive fitness  adaptive benefit of transmitting genes rather than focusing on ind. survival - Those whom are altruistic toward others with same genes  kin selection  ex. Bees and giving honey to eggs even though they aren’t reproducing themselves, they are helping the whole colony grow as a whole - There is also altruism to NON relatives reciprocal helping  helping other because they might return the favor later on  benefits > cost for it to work  Kitty Genovese and the bystander intervention effect  Failure to offer help to someone in need  also the smoke in the room experiment (only 10% did something)  Bystander intervention effect also called bystander apathy Why does the Bystander Effect Happen?? 1. Diffusion of responsibility 2. Fear of making Social Blunders in Ambiguous Situation  fear of looking foolish 3. People will less likely help when they are anonymous 4. Could harm themselves by helping the other  weighing cost of helping vs benefits Chapter 15 Treatment of Psychological Disorders  Two ways of treating mental disorders: 1. Psychotherapy  practitioner and the client by making the client understand their symptoms and finding solution to solve them (psychological) 2. Biological Therapy medication to disease, assumption that mental disorders are abnormalities in neural and bodily processes - Psychopharmacology  medication that effects brain or body functions (good for short term)  Getting a better understanding of the etiology of mental disorders (causes) does not mean better knowledge for treating it  also treating a type of disorder with same type of treatment not always effective  autism is biological disorder but treating it with behavioural treatment rather than biological is more effective Types of Therapies 1. Psychodynamic Therapy and Insight  FREUD  Psychoanalysis  sitting in chair and speaking your mind and access unconscious thoughts  Unconscious thoughts and conflict lead to maladaptive thoughts and behaviour  Techniques: - Free Association: saying whatever came to mind - Dream Analysis: interpreting meaning of client’s dreams  This lead to INSIGHT or personal understanding of psychological processes  Freud practices were later changed to psychodynamic therapy  understand needs, defence and motives 2. Humanistic Therapies and Whole Person  Based on personal experience, belief system and individuals  treatment of person as a WHOLE rather than collection of behaviours  Client-Centred Therapy  Carl Rogers  safe and comfortable environment with friendly therapist  reflective listening (repeating clients actions or thoughts to allow focus on subjective thoughts)  Motivational Interviewing  problem drinkers and using client-centred therapy 3. Cognitive-Behavioural Therapy  Type of therapy where you are changing the clients cognition directly  targeting maladaptive thought directly  Bases of: behaviour is learned and can be unlearned through the two types of conditioning  Social skills training  way of getting desired behaviour - First step is modelling the situation or desired behaviour  Cognitive Restructuring  changing maladaptive thoughts  Rational-Emotive Therapy  therapist is like teacher and teach adaptive behaviour ^^^ Both based on individual belief system and not objective conditions  INTERPERSONAL THERAPY  mixture of INSIGHT and COGNITIVE  focuses on relationships the client is trying to avoid  COGNITIVE-BEHAVIOURAL THERAPY (CBT)  most used  for phobias they use CBT of exposure (using basis of classical conditioning) Family Therapy  Systems Approach  individual is part of larger context, and any change in individuals behaviour will effect whole system (FAMILY LEVEL)  Family members NEGATIVE EXPRESSED EMOTIONS  hostile and emotionally overinvolved could lead to relapse  Schitz relapse more in hostile India than Japan but relapse more in overinvolved Japan than India  Aristotle  CATHARIS  certain messages evoke strong emotional reactions and relief  Psychotropic Medications: drugs that affect mental processes  changing neurochemistry(altering synaptic transmissions or inhibiting action potentials) - Really grew after deinstitutionalization  Psychotropic Medication fall under 3 types: 1. Anti-Anxiety  Tranquilizers  increase inhibitory GABA 2. Anti-Depressants  Monoamine oxidase (MAO) inhibitors  increase serotonin, norepinephrine and dopamine  tricyclic antidepressants used now  inhibit reuptake of neurotransmitters  ex. Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRI)  PROZAC 3. Anti-Psychotics  aka neuroleptics  bind to and block effects of dopamine  can lead to bad side effects: tardive dyskinesia  twitching  Lithium and anti-convulsants help with bipolar  Trepanning  used in old times and put holes in head to release evil spirits  Psychosurgery  removing parts of frontal lobe to get rid of schiz  prefrontal lobotomy (Moniz)  Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS)  powerful current that makes an electric field, when switched on and off, causes electrical current in brain region directly below the coil  single pulse vs repeated pulses  Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS)  implanting electrodes in brain and giving stimulation for optimum frequency and intensity  used for Parkinson’s  implanted in motor regions to alleviate motor symptoms of disease Effective Treatments  Distinctions between psychological treatment (evidence-based treatments) vs. psychotherapy (any type of therapy)  Barlow says that 3 features that characterize psychological treatment: 1. Vary according to mental disorder 2. Techniques have been formulated in labs using behaviour, cognitive and social psychologists 3. No overall grand theory guides treatment, rather it is based on EVIDENCE and EFFECTIVENESS BEHAVIOURAL and COGNITIVE treatment for ANXIETY  Cognitive behavioural theory good for treating anxiety  Anxiety reducing drugs  only short term and addictive like tranquilizers  Anti-Depressants that block reuptake of serotonin good for anxiety too  For phobias  behaviour techniques are nice - Client makes FEAR HIERARCHIES - Change muscle tension to relaxation - Then do exposure therapy  exposure and not relaxation alleviates the fear - Can use virtual environments/reality - SSRIs better than tranquilizers for social phobia  For Panic Disorder - Imipramine prevents panic attacks but not reduce anxiety of getting an attack - Cognitive-behaviour good for breaking association of physical symptoms and feelings of doom  fear of fainting even though irrational so client becomes aware - Use cognitive restructuring  For OCD - SSRI is nice for OCD…NOT anti-anxiety ones - Especially good is: potent serotonin reuptake inhibitor clomipramine - CBT also nice for OCD  exposure and response prevention  done to break the conditioned link between stimulus and compulsive behaviour - CBT > clomipramine > placebo - For severe cases of OCD where CBT no work, deep brain stimulation (DBS) is used to remove symptoms  electrodes to the caudate Treatments for Depression  No best way to treat depression 1. Pharmacology Treatment - MAO inhibitors, but could be toxic - Tricyclics  good for clinical depression - SSRI Prozac has less side effects than tricyclics, no effect on histamine and acetylcholine - People with placebo showed improved activity in prefrontal cortex, different from anti- depressents - Usually do trial and error approach for
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