1. Characteristics of people or things=attributes
2. (1) The logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the
basis of general principles. Starting from the general principle that all deans are
meanies, you might anticipate that this one won?t let you change courses. This
anticipation would be the result of deduction. (2) What Canada Revenue Agency said
your good-for-nothing moocher of a brother-in-law technically isn?t. (3) Of a duck=
3. (1) A variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another (called the independent
variable). If you find that income is partly a function of amount of formal education,
income is being treated as a dependent variable. (2) A wimpy variable= dependent
4. An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a
particular condition or event. Imagine trying to list all the reasons why you chose to
attend your particular university. Given all those reasons, it?s difficult to imagine your
making any other choice= idiographic
5. (1) A variable with values that are not problematical in an analysis but are taken as
simply given. An independent variable is presumed to cause or determine a dependent
variable. If we discover that religiosity is partly a function of gender-women are more
religious than men-gender is the independent variable and religiosity is the dependent
variable. Note that any given variable might be treated as independent in one part of an
analysis and dependent in another part of it. Religiosity might become an independent
variable in the explanation of crime. (2) A variable that refuses to take advice=
6. (1) The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific
observations. Having noted that Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote Liberal than
Protestants are, you might conclude that religious minorities in Canada are more
affiliated with the Liberal party and explain why. This would be an example of induction.
(2) The culinary art of stuffing ducks= induction
7. An approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that
generally impact a class of conditions or events. Imagine the two or three key factors
that determine which universities students choose, such as proximity, reputation, and so
forth. By contrast, see idiographic= nomothetic
8. (1) Repetition of a research study in order to either confirm the findings of a previous
study or bring them into question. (2) A technical term used in connection with the
elaboration model to refer to the empirical outcome of the persistence of the observed
initial relationship between two variables when a control variable is held constant. This
supports the idea that the original, zero-order relationship is genuine=replication 9. A systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life:
juvenile delinquency, for example, or perhaps social stratification or political revolution=
10. Logical groupings of attributes. The variable gender is made up of the attributes male
and female= variables
1) axioms or postulates= Fundamental assertions, taken to be true, on which a
theory is grounded.
2) Deduction= (1) The logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses
are developed on the basis of general principles. Starting from the general
principle that all deans are meanies, you might anticipate that this one won?t let
you change courses. This anticipation would be the result of deduction. (2) What
Canada Revenue Agency said your good-for-nothing moocher of a brother-in-law
technically isn?t. (3) Of a duck.
3) Hypothesis= A specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows
from a more general proposition; more generally, an expectation about the nature
of things derived from a theory. It is a statement of something that ought to be
observed in the real world if the theory is correct.
4) hypothesis testing= The determination of whether the expectations that a
hypothesis represents are, indeed, found to exist in the real world.
5) Idiographic= An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the
idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event. Imagine trying to list all the
reasons why you chose to attend your particular university. Given all those
reasons, it?s difficult to imagine your making any other choice.
6) Induction= (1) The logical model in which general principles are developed from
specific observations. Having noted that Jews and Catholics are more likely to
vote Liberal than Protestants are, you might conclude that religious minorities in
Canada are more affiliated with the Liberal party and explain why. This would be
an example of induction. (2) The culinary art of stuffing ducks.
7) Macrotheory=A theory aimed at understanding the "big picture" of institutions,
whole societies, and the interactions among societies. Karl Marx?s examination
of the class struggle is an example of macrotheory. 8) Microtheory=A theory aimed at understanding social life at the intimate level of
individuals and their interactions. Examining how the play behaviour of girls
differs from that of boys would be an example of microtheory.
9) Nomothetic= An approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few
causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events. Imagine the
two or three key factors that determine which universities students choose, such
as proximity, reputation, and so forth. By contrast, see idiographic.
10)operational definition=The concrete and specific definition of something in terms
of the operations by which observations are to be categorized. The operational
definition of "earning an A in this course" might be "correctly answering at least
90 percent of the final exam questions."
11)Operationalization=(1) One step beyond conceptualization. Operationalization is
the process of developing operational definitions-that is, specifying the exact
operations involved in measuring a variable. (2) Surgery on intellectuals.
12)Paradigm=(1) A model or framework for observation and understanding, which
shapes both what we see and how we understand it. The conflict paradigm
causes us to see social behaviour one way, the interactionist paradigm causes
us to see it differently. (2) $0.20
13)Propositions= specific conclusions about the relationships among concepts that
are derived from the axiomatic groundwork
14)Theory=A systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular
aspect of life: juvenile delinquency, for example, or perhaps social stratification or
15)Variables= Logical groupings of attributes. The variable gender is made up of the
attributes male and female. CH.3
A. anonymity=Anonymity may be guaranteed in a research project when neither the
researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given
B. Confidentiality=A research project guarantees confidentiality when the researcher can
identify a given person?s responses but promises not to do so publicly.
C. Debriefing=Interviewing subjects following their participation in the research project to
learn about their experiences and reactions to their participation. Negative reactions can
be a special concern. If it is determined that participation generated any problems for the
subject, there is an attempt to correct such problems.
D. informed consent=A norm in which research subjects base their voluntary participation in
a study on a full understanding of the potential risks involved. CH.4
a) census=1) An enumeration of the characteristics of some population. A census is often
similar to a survey, with the difference that the census collects data from all members of
the population and the survey is limited to a sample. (2) What sober-minded folks always
want to bring you to.
b) cohort study=A study in which some specific subpopulation, or cohort, is studied over
time, although data may be collected from different members in each set of
observations. A study of the occupational history of the class of 1970, in which
questionnaires were sent every five years, for example, would be a cohort study.
c) Correlation=An empirical relationship between two variables such that (a) changes in
one are associated with changes in the other or (b) particular attributes of one variable
are associated with particular attributes of the other. For example, weight and height are
said to be correlated because of the association between increases in height and
increases in weight. Correlation in and of itself does not constitute a causal relationship
between two variables, but it is one criterion of causality.
d) cross-sectional study=A study based on observations representing a single point in time.
Contrasted with a longitudinal study.
e) ecological fallacy=Erroneously drawing conclusions about individuals based solely on
the observation of groups. f) Generalizability=(1) That quality of a research finding that justifies the inference that it
represents something more than the specific observations on which it was based.
Sometimes this involves the generalization of findings from a sample to a population.
Other times, it?s a matter of concepts: If you discover why people commit burglaries,
can you generalize that discovery to other crimes as well? (2) The likelihood that you will
ever be a general.
g) longitudinal study=A study design involving the collection of data at different points in
time, as contrasted with a cross-sectional study.
h) panel study=A type of longitudinal study in which data are collected from the same set of
people (the sample or panel) at several points in time.
i) spurious relationship=A coincidental statistical correlation between two variables that is
shown to be caused by some third variable. For example, there is a positive correlation
between ice cream sales and deaths due to drowning: the more ice cream sold, the
more drownings. However, there is no direct link between ice cream and drowning. The
third variable at work here is season or temperature. Most drowning deaths occur during
summer, the peak period for ice cream sales.
j) trend study=A type of longitudinal study in which a given characteristic of some
population is monitored over time. An example would be the series of Gallup Polls
showing the political-candidate preferences of the electorate over the course of a
campaign, even though different samples were interviewed at each point.
k) units of analysis=The what or whom being studied. In social science research, the most
typical units of analysis are individual people, but social artefacts, like books or movies,
and groups, populations and other aggregates are often studied as well
1. conceptualization=(1) The mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions
(concepts) are made more specific and precise. So you want to study prejudice. What do
you mean by prejudice? Are there different kinds of prejudice? What are they? (2)
Sexual reproduction among intellectuals.
2. construct validity=The degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected
within a system of theoretical relationships.
3. content validity=The degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included
within a concept.
4. criterion-related validity=The degree to which a measure relates with some external
criterion. For example, the validity of occupational qualifying examinations is shown in
their ability to predict future evaluations of the individuals? job performances. Also called
predictive validity. 5. Dimension=A specifiable aspect or facet of a concept. Religiosity, for example, might be
specified in terms of a ritual dimension, a belief dimension, a devotional dimension, and
6. face validity=(1) That quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of
some variable. That the frequency of attendance at religious services is some indication
of a person?s religiosity seems to make sense without a lot of explanation. It has face
validity. (2) When your face looks like your driver?s licence photo (rare).
7. Indicator=An observation that we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable we
wish to study. Thus, for example, attending religious services might be considered an
indicator of religiosity.
8. interval measure=A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are
rank-ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes. The Celsius
temperature scale is an example of this, because the distance between 17 and 18 is the
same as that between 39 and 40.
9. nominal measure=A variable whose attributes only have the characteristics of being
jointly exhaustive and mutually exclusive. In other words, a level of measurement
describing a variable that has attributes that are merely different from each other, as
distinguished from ordinal, interval, or ratio measures. Gender is an example of a
10. operational definition=The concrete and specific definition of something in terms of the
operations by which observations are to be categorized. The operational definition of
"earning an A in this course" might be "correctly answering at least 90 percent of the final
11. Operationalization=(1) One step beyond conceptualization. Operationalization is the
process of developing operational definitions-that is, specifying the exact operations
involved in measuring a variable. (2) Surgery on intellectuals.
12. ordinal measure=A level of measurement describing a variable with attributes one can
rank-order along some dimension. An example would be socioeconomic status as
composed of the attributes high, medium, low.
13. ratio measure=A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes have all
the qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval measures and in addition are based on a
"true zero" point. Age is an example of a ratio measure.
14. Reification=The process of regarding things that are not real as real.
15. Reliability=(1) That quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data
would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same
phenomenon. In the context of a survey, we would expect that the question "Did you
attend religious services last week?" would have higher reliability than the question "About how many times have you attended religious services in your life?" This is not to
be confused with validity. (2) Quality of repeatability in untruths.
16. Specification=(1) The process through which concepts are made more specific. (2) In the
elaboration model it is used as a technical term to refer to the elaboration outcome when
an initially observed relationship between two variables is replicated among some
subgroups created by the control variable but not among others. In other words, when
the partial relationships that result from the addition of a test variable differ significantly
from each other-for instance, one partial relationship is the same as or stronger than the
zero-order relationship, and the other partial relationship is less than the original and
may be reduced to zero-you will have specified the conditions under which the original
relationship exists, for example, among the elderly but not among children.
17. Validity=A term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to
measure. For example, your IQ would seem a more valid measure of your intelligence
than would the number of hours you spend in the library. Though the ultimate validity of a
measure can never be proven, we may agree to its relative validity on the basis of face
validity, criterion validity, content validity, construct validity, internal validation, and
external validation. This must not be confused with reliability.
1. Bogardus social distance scale= A measurement technique for determining the
willingness of people to participate in social relations-of varying degrees of closeness-
with other kinds of people. It?s an especially efficient technique in that several discrete
answers may be summarized without losing any of the original details of the data.
2. external validation=The process of testing the validity of a measure, such as an index or
scale, by examining its relationship to other, presumed indicators of the same variable. If the index really measures prejudice, for example, it should correlate with other indicators
3. Guttman scale=(1) A type of composite measure used to summarize several discrete
observations that combine into a more general variable. (2) The device Louis Guttman
weighs himself on.
4. Index=A type of composite measure that summarizes and rank-orders several specific
observations and represents some more general dimension. Contrasted with scale.
5. item analysis=An assessment of whether each of the items included in a composite
measure makes an independent contribution or merely duplicates the contribution of
other items in the measure.
6. Likert scale=A type of composite measure developed by Rensis Likert in an attempt to
improve the levels of measurement in social research through the use of standardized
response categories in survey questionnaires to determine the relative intensity of
different items. Likert items are those using such response categories as strongly agree,
agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. Such items may be used in the construction of
true Likert scales as well as other types of composite measures
7. Scale=(1) A type of composite measure composed of several items that have a logical or
empirical structure among them. Examples of scales include Bogardus social distance,
Guttman, Likert, and Thurstone scales. Contrasted with index. (2) One of the less
appetizing parts of a fish.
8. semantic differential=A questionnaire format in which the respondent is asked to rate
something in terms of two, opposite adjectives (e.g., rate textbooks as "boring" or
"exciting"), using qualifiers such as "very," "somewhat," "neither," "somewhat," and "very"
to bridge the distance between the two opposites
9. Thurstone scale=A type of composite measure, constructed in accord with the weights
assigned by "judges" to various indicators of some variables.
10. Typology=(1) The classification (typically nominal) of observations in terms of their
attributes on two or more variables or concepts. The classification of newspapers as
liberal-urban, liberal-rural, conservative-urban, or conservative-rural would be an
example. (2) Apologizing for your neckwear.
1. study population=That aggregation of elements f