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CH soc200.docx

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY100H1
Professor
All Professors
Semester
Fall

Description
CH.1 1. Characteristics of people or things=attributes 2. (1) The logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principles. Starting from the general principle that all deans are meanies, you might anticipate that this one won?t let you change courses. This anticipation would be the result of deduction. (2) What Canada Revenue Agency said your good-for-nothing moocher of a brother-in-law technically isn?t. (3) Of a duck= deduction 3. (1) A variable assumed to depend on or be caused by another (called the independent variable). If you find that income is partly a function of amount of formal education, income is being treated as a dependent variable. (2) A wimpy variable= dependent variable 4. An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event. Imagine trying to list all the reasons why you chose to attend your particular university. Given all those reasons, it?s difficult to imagine your making any other choice= idiographic 5. (1) A variable with values that are not problematical in an analysis but are taken as simply given. An independent variable is presumed to cause or determine a dependent variable. If we discover that religiosity is partly a function of gender-women are more religious than men-gender is the independent variable and religiosity is the dependent variable. Note that any given variable might be treated as independent in one part of an analysis and dependent in another part of it. Religiosity might become an independent variable in the explanation of crime. (2) A variable that refuses to take advice= independent variable 6. (1) The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations. Having noted that Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote Liberal than Protestants are, you might conclude that religious minorities in Canada are more affiliated with the Liberal party and explain why. This would be an example of induction. (2) The culinary art of stuffing ducks= induction 7. An approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events. Imagine the two or three key factors that determine which universities students choose, such as proximity, reputation, and so forth. By contrast, see idiographic= nomothetic 8. (1) Repetition of a research study in order to either confirm the findings of a previous study or bring them into question. (2) A technical term used in connection with the elaboration model to refer to the empirical outcome of the persistence of the observed initial relationship between two variables when a control variable is held constant. This supports the idea that the original, zero-order relationship is genuine=replication 9. A systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life: juvenile delinquency, for example, or perhaps social stratification or political revolution= theory 10. Logical groupings of attributes. The variable gender is made up of the attributes male and female= variables CH. 2 1) axioms or postulates= Fundamental assertions, taken to be true, on which a theory is grounded. 2) Deduction= (1) The logical model in which specific expectations of hypotheses are developed on the basis of general principles. Starting from the general principle that all deans are meanies, you might anticipate that this one won?t let you change courses. This anticipation would be the result of deduction. (2) What Canada Revenue Agency said your good-for-nothing moocher of a brother-in-law technically isn?t. (3) Of a duck. 3) Hypothesis= A specified testable expectation about empirical reality that follows from a more general proposition; more generally, an expectation about the nature of things derived from a theory. It is a statement of something that ought to be observed in the real world if the theory is correct. 4) hypothesis testing= The determination of whether the expectations that a hypothesis represents are, indeed, found to exist in the real world. 5) Idiographic= An approach to explanation in which we seek to exhaust the idiosyncratic causes of a particular condition or event. Imagine trying to list all the reasons why you chose to attend your particular university. Given all those reasons, it?s difficult to imagine your making any other choice. 6) Induction= (1) The logical model in which general principles are developed from specific observations. Having noted that Jews and Catholics are more likely to vote Liberal than Protestants are, you might conclude that religious minorities in Canada are more affiliated with the Liberal party and explain why. This would be an example of induction. (2) The culinary art of stuffing ducks. 7) Macrotheory=A theory aimed at understanding the "big picture" of institutions, whole societies, and the interactions among societies. Karl Marx?s examination of the class struggle is an example of macrotheory. 8) Microtheory=A theory aimed at understanding social life at the intimate level of individuals and their interactions. Examining how the play behaviour of girls differs from that of boys would be an example of microtheory. 9) Nomothetic= An approach to explanation in which we seek to identify a few causal factors that generally impact a class of conditions or events. Imagine the two or three key factors that determine which universities students choose, such as proximity, reputation, and so forth. By contrast, see idiographic. 10)operational definition=The concrete and specific definition of something in terms of the operations by which observations are to be categorized. The operational definition of "earning an A in this course" might be "correctly answering at least 90 percent of the final exam questions." 11)Operationalization=(1) One step beyond conceptualization. Operationalization is the process of developing operational definitions-that is, specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable. (2) Surgery on intellectuals. 12)Paradigm=(1) A model or framework for observation and understanding, which shapes both what we see and how we understand it. The conflict paradigm causes us to see social behaviour one way, the interactionist paradigm causes us to see it differently. (2) $0.20 13)Propositions= specific conclusions about the relationships among concepts that are derived from the axiomatic groundwork 14)Theory=A systematic explanation for the observations that relate to a particular aspect of life: juvenile delinquency, for example, or perhaps social stratification or political revolution. 15)Variables= Logical groupings of attributes. The variable gender is made up of the attributes male and female. CH.3 A. anonymity=Anonymity may be guaranteed in a research project when neither the researchers nor the readers of the findings can identify a given response with a given respondent. B. Confidentiality=A research project guarantees confidentiality when the researcher can identify a given person?s responses but promises not to do so publicly. C. Debriefing=Interviewing subjects following their participation in the research project to learn about their experiences and reactions to their participation. Negative reactions can be a special concern. If it is determined that participation generated any problems for the subject, there is an attempt to correct such problems. D. informed consent=A norm in which research subjects base their voluntary participation in a study on a full understanding of the potential risks involved. CH.4 a) census=1) An enumeration of the characteristics of some population. A census is often similar to a survey, with the difference that the census collects data from all members of the population and the survey is limited to a sample. (2) What sober-minded folks always want to bring you to. b) cohort study=A study in which some specific subpopulation, or cohort, is studied over time, although data may be collected from different members in each set of observations. A study of the occupational history of the class of 1970, in which questionnaires were sent every five years, for example, would be a cohort study. c) Correlation=An empirical relationship between two variables such that (a) changes in one are associated with changes in the other or (b) particular attributes of one variable are associated with particular attributes of the other. For example, weight and height are said to be correlated because of the association between increases in height and increases in weight. Correlation in and of itself does not constitute a causal relationship between two variables, but it is one criterion of causality. d) cross-sectional study=A study based on observations representing a single point in time. Contrasted with a longitudinal study. e) ecological fallacy=Erroneously drawing conclusions about individuals based solely on the observation of groups. f) Generalizability=(1) That quality of a research finding that justifies the inference that it represents something more than the specific observations on which it was based. Sometimes this involves the generalization of findings from a sample to a population. Other times, it?s a matter of concepts: If you discover why people commit burglaries, can you generalize that discovery to other crimes as well? (2) The likelihood that you will ever be a general. g) longitudinal study=A study design involving the collection of data at different points in time, as contrasted with a cross-sectional study. h) panel study=A type of longitudinal study in which data are collected from the same set of people (the sample or panel) at several points in time. i) spurious relationship=A coincidental statistical correlation between two variables that is shown to be caused by some third variable. For example, there is a positive correlation between ice cream sales and deaths due to drowning: the more ice cream sold, the more drownings. However, there is no direct link between ice cream and drowning. The third variable at work here is season or temperature. Most drowning deaths occur during summer, the peak period for ice cream sales. j) trend study=A type of longitudinal study in which a given characteristic of some population is monitored over time. An example would be the series of Gallup Polls showing the political-candidate preferences of the electorate over the course of a campaign, even though different samples were interviewed at each point. k) units of analysis=The what or whom being studied. In social science research, the most typical units of analysis are individual people, but social artefacts, like books or movies, and groups, populations and other aggregates are often studied as well CH.5 1. conceptualization=(1) The mental process whereby fuzzy and imprecise notions (concepts) are made more specific and precise. So you want to study prejudice. What do you mean by prejudice? Are there different kinds of prejudice? What are they? (2) Sexual reproduction among intellectuals. 2. construct validity=The degree to which a measure relates to other variables as expected within a system of theoretical relationships. 3. content validity=The degree to which a measure covers the range of meanings included within a concept. 4. criterion-related validity=The degree to which a measure relates with some external criterion. For example, the validity of occupational qualifying examinations is shown in their ability to predict future evaluations of the individuals? job performances. Also called predictive validity. 5. Dimension=A specifiable aspect or facet of a concept. Religiosity, for example, might be specified in terms of a ritual dimension, a belief dimension, a devotional dimension, and so forth. 6. face validity=(1) That quality of an indicator that makes it seem a reasonable measure of some variable. That the frequency of attendance at religious services is some indication of a person?s religiosity seems to make sense without a lot of explanation. It has face validity. (2) When your face looks like your driver?s licence photo (rare). 7. Indicator=An observation that we choose to consider as a reflection of a variable we wish to study. Thus, for example, attending religious services might be considered an indicator of religiosity. 8. interval measure=A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes are rank-ordered and have equal distances between adjacent attributes. The Celsius temperature scale is an example of this, because the distance between 17 and 18 is the same as that between 39 and 40. 9. nominal measure=A variable whose attributes only have the characteristics of being jointly exhaustive and mutually exclusive. In other words, a level of measurement describing a variable that has attributes that are merely different from each other, as distinguished from ordinal, interval, or ratio measures. Gender is an example of a nominal measure. 10. operational definition=The concrete and specific definition of something in terms of the operations by which observations are to be categorized. The operational definition of "earning an A in this course" might be "correctly answering at least 90 percent of the final exam questions." 11. Operationalization=(1) One step beyond conceptualization. Operationalization is the process of developing operational definitions-that is, specifying the exact operations involved in measuring a variable. (2) Surgery on intellectuals. 12. ordinal measure=A level of measurement describing a variable with attributes one can rank-order along some dimension. An example would be socioeconomic status as composed of the attributes high, medium, low. 13. ratio measure=A level of measurement describing a variable whose attributes have all the qualities of nominal, ordinal, and interval measures and in addition are based on a "true zero" point. Age is an example of a ratio measure. 14. Reification=The process of regarding things that are not real as real. 15. Reliability=(1) That quality of measurement method that suggests that the same data would have been collected each time in repeated observations of the same phenomenon. In the context of a survey, we would expect that the question "Did you attend religious services last week?" would have higher reliability than the question "About how many times have you attended religious services in your life?" This is not to be confused with validity. (2) Quality of repeatability in untruths. 16. Specification=(1) The process through which concepts are made more specific. (2) In the elaboration model it is used as a technical term to refer to the elaboration outcome when an initially observed relationship between two variables is replicated among some subgroups created by the control variable but not among others. In other words, when the partial relationships that result from the addition of a test variable differ significantly from each other-for instance, one partial relationship is the same as or stronger than the zero-order relationship, and the other partial relationship is less than the original and may be reduced to zero-you will have specified the conditions under which the original relationship exists, for example, among the elderly but not among children. 17. Validity=A term describing a measure that accurately reflects the concept it is intended to measure. For example, your IQ would seem a more valid measure of your intelligence than would the number of hours you spend in the library. Though the ultimate validity of a measure can never be proven, we may agree to its relative validity on the basis of face validity, criterion validity, content validity, construct validity, internal validation, and external validation. This must not be confused with reliability. CH.6 1. Bogardus social distance scale= A measurement technique for determining the willingness of people to participate in social relations-of varying degrees of closeness- with other kinds of people. It?s an especially efficient technique in that several discrete answers may be summarized without losing any of the original details of the data. 2. external validation=The process of testing the validity of a measure, such as an index or scale, by examining its relationship to other, presumed indicators of the same variable. If the index really measures prejudice, for example, it should correlate with other indicators of prejudice 3. Guttman scale=(1) A type of composite measure used to summarize several discrete observations that combine into a more general variable. (2) The device Louis Guttman weighs himself on. 4. Index=A type of composite measure that summarizes and rank-orders several specific observations and represents some more general dimension. Contrasted with scale. 5. item analysis=An assessment of whether each of the items included in a composite measure makes an independent contribution or merely duplicates the contribution of other items in the measure. 6. Likert scale=A type of composite measure developed by Rensis Likert in an attempt to improve the levels of measurement in social research through the use of standardized response categories in survey questionnaires to determine the relative intensity of different items. Likert items are those using such response categories as strongly agree, agree, disagree, and strongly disagree. Such items may be used in the construction of true Likert scales as well as other types of composite measures 7. Scale=(1) A type of composite measure composed of several items that have a logical or empirical structure among them. Examples of scales include Bogardus social distance, Guttman, Likert, and Thurstone scales. Contrasted with index. (2) One of the less appetizing parts of a fish. 8. semantic differential=A questionnaire format in which the respondent is asked to rate something in terms of two, opposite adjectives (e.g., rate textbooks as "boring" or "exciting"), using qualifiers such as "very," "somewhat," "neither," "somewhat," and "very" to bridge the distance between the two opposites 9. Thurstone scale=A type of composite measure, constructed in accord with the weights assigned by "judges" to various indicators of some variables. 10. Typology=(1) The classification (typically nominal) of observations in terms of their attributes on two or more variables or concepts. The classification of newspapers as liberal-urban, liberal-rural, conservative-urban, or conservative-rural would be an example. (2) Apologizing for your neckwear. CH.7 1. study population=That aggregation of elements f
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