Psych Final Study Guide.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Eli Nathans

Chapter 2 • Scientific Method: a systematic method of collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data, used to describe, predict, controls, and explain why specific behaviors happen. 1. World events, personal experiments, past research, logic/ common sense  Theory: a model of interconnected ideas/concepts that explain what is observed and makes predictions about future events 2. Hypothesis: an attempt to answer a theories question, testable predictions (observed if the theory is correct). 3. Empirical Research: design a study, collect data, analyze results, draw conclusion  prove or disprove hypothesis. Theory is supported, discarded, or revised. • Descriptive Studies: observing and classifying behavior of people or animals. o Examples: 1. Naturalistic Studies: research does not alter situation 2. Participant Observation: researcher is actively involved 3. Longitudinal studies: studies participant/group over long term (multiple years). Problem: expensive and take long time 4. Cross-sectional studies: researcher compares participants of different ages at the same time. Problem: unidentified variables may be involved. 5. Case-Studies: examine individual lives and organizations, intense examination of a specific person or organization 6. Cross cultural studies: examines the effect of culture on some variable of interest. Problem: some situations/words do not have same meaning across cultures. 7. Cultural Sensitive Research: takes into account the role that culture plays in determining thoughts, feelings, and actions. • Confound: anything besides the IV that may change the dependent variable. o Observer Bias: errors in observation that occur because of an observer’s expectations o Experimenter Expectancy Effect: actual change in the behavior of the people/animals being observed that is due to the expectation of the observer o Reactivity: participant knowledge of being observed may alter behavior • Archival Studies: examine existing records of past events • Correlational Studies: examine how variables are related, natural relationship between variables (without interference) o Directionality problem: uncertain which variable caused the other (A leads to B or B leads toA) o Third Variable Problem: uncertain if another variable is the cause (C leads to both Aand B). o Correlation is not causation  • External Validity: whether findings can be generalized to the real world. • Internal Validity: extent to which collected data addresses hypothesis • Central Tendency: measures that represent a typical response of behavior of a group as a whole o Reliability: extent to which measurement is stable over time in similar conditions • Selection Bias: unintended difference between participants in different groups o Random Assignment: gives each participant equal chance to be assigned to any group • Institutional review board: groups that review proposed research that ensures physical and emotional well-being of research participants • Response Performance: research method in which researchers quantify perceptual or cognitive processes in response to specific stimulus • Meta-Analysis: a study of studies that combines the findings of multiple studies to derive a conclusion Chapter 3 • Endocrine System: a communication system that uses hormones (chemical substances released into the bloodstream) to influence thoughts, behaviors and actions. o Major Glands: 1. Pineal: governs bodily rythms 2. Hypothalamus: controls motivation and regulates body functions 3. Pituitary gland: governs release of hormones 4. Thyroid: controls how body burns energy 5. Parathyroid: maintains calcium levels 6. Thymus: governs immune system 7. Adrenal: governs immune system 8. Pancreas: controls digestion 9. Ovary/Testis: influences reproduction • Central Nervous System: CNS, Brain and Spinal Cord • Peripheral Nervous System: PNS, somatic and autonomic o Somatic Nervous System: made up of nerves that transmit signal to and from the CNS  Afferent: nerve fibers carry information TO the CNS  Efferent: nerve fibers carry information FROM the CNS o Autonomic Nervous System: regulates the body’s internal environment by stimulating glands and internal organs  Sympathetic Nervous System: prepares body for action  Parasympathetic Nervous System: returns body to natural state   • Homeostasis: a dynamic balance between the autonomic branches • Neurons: individual cells in the nervous that receive, intergrade, and transmit information, 100 billion in the brain o nodes of Ranvier: small gaps of exposed axon between the segments of myelin sheath, where action potentiation are transmitter o Types: 1. Receptor Neurons: receive information from the environment 2. Sensory (afferent) Neurons: send signals from the sense, skin, muscles, and organs to the CNS 3. Motor (efferent) Neurons: send signals from the CNS to muscles, glands, and organs 4. Interneurons: CNS neurons that communicate with other neurons • Neurons communicate electrically within cells through neuron impulses o Resting potential: positive charged ions on the outside of stable membrane and negative voltage difference o Stimulation causes ion channels to open, leads to voltage switch leads to propagation of action potential along axon, ultimately leads to release of chemicals from the terminal buttons o Myelinated: depolarization proceeds down access with jumps/skips o All-Or-None: signal is either sent or not, further increase in stimulus has no increase on magnitude of signal only frequency • Communication between cells is done chemically via neurotransmitters • Termination Neurotransmitters: o Reuptake: neurotransmitter is taken back into presynaptic button o Enzyme deactivation: NT is destroyed by enzyme o Autoreceptors: neuron’s own receptor regulates release of NT • Neurotransmitters: powerful chemicals that regulate physical and emotional processes, chemical messengers to brain o Common NT and Major Functions: 1. Acetylcholine: motor control over muscles, leaning, memory, sleeping, an dreaming. 2. Epinephrine: energy 3. Norepinephrine: arousal and vigilance/awareness 4. Serotonin: emotional states and impulsiveness, dreaming 5. Dopamine: reward and motivation, motor controls over voluntary movement 6. GABA(gamma-aminobutyric acid): inhibition of action potentials, anxiety reduction, intoxication (alcohol), primary inhibitory transmitter in NS 7. Glutamate: enhancement of action potentials, learning and memory 8. Endorphins: pain reduction, reward 9. Substance P: pain perception, mood and anxiety • Agonist: any drug/chemical that enhances the actions of specific NT • Antagonist: any drug/chemical that inhibits the actions of a specific NT • Gray Matter: forms a continuous cortical sheath composed of clusters of cell bodies, dark gray • White Matter: composed of axon bundles, white because of fatty tissue, myelin sheath, that cover axon • Brain stem: houses basic programs of survival: breathing & swallowing o Reticular formation: network of neurons that influences general aleterness and sleep • Cerebellum: essential for movement and balance, back of brainstem • Brain Lobes: o Prefrontal cortex: attention, working memory, decision making, appropriate social behavior, personality • Thalamus: gateway to the brain, receives almost all incoming sensory information before it reaches cortex • Hippocampus: associated with the formation of memories • Amygdala: serves a vital role in our learning to associate things with emotional responses and processes emotional information • Basal ganglia: subcortical structure that are important for planned movement • Cerebral Cortex: 1. Association Cortex: brain’s higher mental processes 2. Somatosensory Cortex: receives sensory information 3. Motor Cortex: sends impulses to voluntary muscles • Boca’sArea: language processing, left hemisphere, directs muscle movement in speech production • Wernicke’sArea: language processing, left hemisphere, involved in comprehension of language o Verbal abilities in females are organized more bilaterally (both hemispheres) • Both eyes send information to the opposite hemispheres • Corpus Callosum: largest bundle of neural fibers connects the two brain hemispheres and carries messages between them. • Neuroscience Methods: 1. Lesions (therapeutic or injury-induced): tissue destruction, knowledge comes from individuals whose brains were altered through injury, illness, surgery 2. Electroencephalogram(EEG): measures electrical activity in the brain 3. Position Emission Tomography (PET): measurement of radioactive glucose used during specific activities (metabolic) 4. ComputerizedAxial Tomography (CAT): X-ray beam  3D image 5. Magnetic Resonance Imagine (MRI): brain imaging 6. fMRI: produces images of the brain while an activity is being performed 7. Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (TMS): magnet interrupts normal brain activity to study brain regions, powerful method of examining which brain regions are necessary for specific psychological functions • Human behavior is influenced by genes: both physical attributes and personal traits inherited by parents o Chromosomes: made of genes o Genotypes = genetic construction o Phenotypes = observable characteristics • Monozygotic twins: identical twins, result from one zygote splitting, share same genes • Dizygotic twins: fraternal twins • Plasticity: property of brain that allows it to change as a result of experience, drugs, and injury Chapter 6: • Learning: a change in knowledge/behavior that results from experience, enduring: once you have learned something it w ill stay with you o Enables animals to better adapt to the environment = survival • Classical Conditioning: learning to associate on stimulus with another (REFLEXIVE RESPONSES) o Pavlov: measured salvation of dogs when presented with food o Unconditioned Stimulus- food o Unconditioned Response- salvation o Conditioned Stimulus- bell o Conditioned Response- salvation • Acquisition: the formation of an association between the CS and US • Extinction: CR is weakened when the CS is repeated without the US and therefore the US is eventually extinguished: elimination of a learned response by removal of the US (inhibits but does not eliminate) • Spontaneous Recovery: re-emergence of an extinguished CR after rest period • Stimulus Generalization: conditioned response follows a stimulus that is similar to the original CS • Stimulus Discrimination: a differentiation between two similar stimuli when only one is consistently associated with US • Second-Order Conditioning: pairing a previously CS with a neutral stimulus • Watson: Litter Albert: fear of white rate is associated with all things white and fluffy o Phobia: fear that is out of proportion to the real threat of an object/situation • Operant Conditioning: learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened dependent on its positive or negative consequences (VOLUNTARY RESPONSES) o Law of effect: responses that are satisfying are more likely to be repeated and those that are not are less likely to be repeated o Positive reinforcement: do this and get something (positive) o Negative reinforcement: do this and remove something (remove pain stimulus) o Positive punishment: administration of stimulus to decrease probability of behavior (pain stimulus) o Negative punishment: removal of stimulus to decrease the probability of behavior occurring (happy stimulus) • Primary reinforcements (satisfy biological needs) or secondary reinforcements (do not directly satisfy biological needs) • Rescorla-Wagner Model: strength of the CS-US association is determined by the extent to which the unconditioned stimulus is unexpected/surprising o The greater the surprise the more the organism puts in to understanding its occurrence in order to predict future occurrences = greater classical conditioning • Skinner: “Skinner Box” food reinforcement for animal • Continuous reinforcement: behavior that is reinforced every time it occurs • Partial Reinforcement: behavior that is reinforced some but not all the time o Ratio: fixed after x time, or variable: on average x time o Interval: fixed after x tries, or variable: after average x tries • Observational Learning: modification of a behavior after exposure to 1+ performances of that behavior 1. Attention: one must pay attention to a behavior and its consequences 2. Retention: store a mental representation/ remember observation 3. Reproduction: motor ability to reproduce the modeled behavior 4. Motivation: expect a benefit from preforming the action o Vicarious learning: learning consequence of action by watching others being rewarded/punished for it  mirror neurons: activated when action is then performed yourself • Latent Learning: learning that takes place in the absence of reinforcement • Meme: a unit of knowledge transmitted within a culture • Habituation (decrease in response to nonthreatening stimulus) vs. Sensitization (increase in response to threatening stimulus) Chapter 9 • Developmental Psychology: the study of how people grow, mature and change over the lifespan • Conception  Zygote  Embryo  Fetus : embryo and fetus can be affected by hormones and teratogens (harmful environmental factors) o Many factors sush as nutrition and hormones can effect development • Dynamic System Theory: behavior emerges through interactions between a child and cultural/environmental context o Infant physical development follows a consistent pattern across culture but practices can affect the timing of milestones o Synaptic pruning: connections that are used are preserved, otherwise they are lost o Sensitive period: time period when specific skills develop most easily • Attachment: strong emotional connection (usually to caregivers) that persists over time and across circumstances • Imprinting: the process by which certain animals form attachments during a critical period very early in life o Critical period: an optimal period after birth when an organisms exposure to certain stimuli or experiences produces proper development • Attachment Theory (Bowlby): similar to imprinting o Harlow’s surrogate mother experiments: monkeys preferred contact with the comfortable mother; even while feeding from the nourishing wire mother o Contact Comfort Theory • SecureAttachment: “quality of attachment”, the attachment style for a majority of infants, infant is confident enough to play in an unfamiliar environment as long as the caregiver is present and is readily comforted during times of distress • InsecureAttachment: minority of infants, avoiding contact with cargiving, alternating between approach and avoidance • Strange situation test: separation and reunion o Securely attached: distressed when mom leaves, she returns = reunited o Avoidant child: not distressed when mom leaves, avoids attachment figure when she returns. o Anxious/Ambivalent: cry when mom leaves but can’t be comforted when she comes back (resistance/angry when returns) • Looking = most robust nonverbal response • Infantile amnesia: inability to remember event from early childhood • Telegraphic speech: tendency for toddlers to speak using rudimentary sentences that are missing words and grammatical marking but follow a logical syntax and convery a wealth of meaning • Habituation: simplest form of learning, organism is familiarized with a stimulus after repeated exposure o Dis-habituation: sensitive to change • Piaget Theory of Adaptation • o Object permanence: the understanding that an object continue to exist even when it is out of sight o Centration: limitation occurs when preoperational stagers cannot think about more than one detail of a task at a time. (animal cracker video) o Egocentrism: the tendency of preoperational thinkers to view the world through their own experiences o Law of Conservation of Matter: ability to understand that an action is reversible o Formal operational stage: can think about more than one viewpoint at once • Schemas: mental representations of the world that guide the processes of assimilation and accommodation o Assimilation: the process of placing new info into existing schema (ex. Baby calls cat a dog) o Accommodation: the process of creating a new schema or drastically changing an existing schema to include new info that otherwise would not fit schema • Theory of Mind: term used to describe ability to explain and predict another persons behavior as a result of recognizing his/her mental state • Kohlberg’s stages of moral reasoning: the way people think and try to solve mental dilemmas o Pre-conventional Level (7-10 year olds): self-interest and event outcomes determine what is moral o Conventional Level (13-16): morality is judged in terms of social order and approval (follow orders strictly) o Post-conventional Level: morality is judged in terms of abstract principles (equality/justice), • Early development is linked to later development but indirectly, development is influenced by heredity and environment o Nature = genetic: traits, abilities, capabilities inherited from one’s parents o Nurture = environment: environmental influences shape behavior • Erikson Psychosocial Theory of 8 Stages (stage (age): crisisresolution) 1. Infancy (0-2): Trust versus mistrust  children learn that the world is safe and that people are loving and reliable 2. Toddler (2-3): autonomy versus shame and doubt  encouraged to explore the environment, children gain feelings of independence and positive self- esteem 3. Preschool (4-6): initiative versus guilt  children develop a sense of purpose by taking on responsibilities, but also develop the capacity to feel guilty for misdeeds 4. Childhood (7-12): Industry versus inferiority  by working successfully with others and assessing how others view them, children learn to feel competent 5. Adolescence (13-19): identity versus isolation  young adults gain the ability to commit to long-term relationships 6. YoungAdulthood (20s): intimacy versus stagnation  young adults gain the ability to commit to long-term relationships 7. MiddleAdulthood (30s to 50s): generativist versus stagnation  adults gain a sense that they are leaving behind a positive legacy and caring for future generations 8. Old Age (60s +): integrity versus despair  older adults feel a sense of satisfaction that they have lived a good life and developed wisdom • Gender roles: the characteristics associated with males and females because of cultural influence/learning Chapter 10 • Emotion: feelings that involve subjective evaluation, physiological processes, and cognitive beliefs o Arousal: physiological activation (such as increased brain activity) or increased autonomic responses (such as HR) • Primary emotions: evolutionarily adaptive, shared across cultures, specific physical states: anger, fear, sadness, disgust, happiness, surprise, contempt • Secondary emotions: blend of primary emotions: guilt, submission, shame, anticipation o Valence: how negative/positive an emotion is o Activation: how arousing an emotion is • Cognitive Component: subjective feeling • Physiological Component: complex processes including many areas of brain o Amygdala: fear, anger, and aggression o Display Rules: Rules learned through socialization that dictate which emotions are suitable to given situations • Behavior Component: body language/non-verbal behavior • Facial Feedback Hypothesis: do I smile because I am happy or am I happy because I smile? Facial muscle send signals to the brain that help us recognize emotion • James-Lange Theory: we feel afraid because pulse is racing • Cannon-Brad: thalamus sends signal simultaneously to the cortex and autonomic nervous system • Schachter’s 2 Factor Theory: look to external cues to decide what to feel  “cognitive label” then emotion • Emergency Emotional Shortcut: eyes to thalamus to (leave out visual cortex) amygdala before you’ve even registered what has happened you have reacted • Misattribution: an explanation that shifts the perceived cause of arousal from the true source to another • Affect-as-information theory: we use our current mood to make judgments and appraisals • Somatic Markers: gut feeling, emotional reaction you experienced when contemplating an action based on your expectations of the actions outcome • Motivation: factors that energize, direct, or sustain behavior o Motives = needs, wants, desires o Motivation creates arousal which creates drive to satisfy the need o Extrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the external goals toward which that activity is directed o Intrinsic motivation: motivation to perform an activity because of the value/pleasure associated with that activity • Need: biological/social deficiency • Masclow’s Need Hierarchy • Delayed gratification  more likely to succeed • Drive Theory: motivation is based on an internal state of tensions that motivates and organism to engage in activates that should reduce this tension o Organisms seek to maintain homeostasis • Incentive Theories: external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior o Incentives: external objects or external goals, rather than internal drives, that motivate behaviors o Downplay the biological bases of emotion o Own personal goals that you want to meet versus NEEDS • Pleasure-principle: seek pleasure and avoid pain • Yerkes-Dodson Law: principle that performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point, after which it decreases • Need to belong theory: theory that the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes • Leptin: long term body fat regulation, released from fat cells as more fat is stored and travels to hypothalamus to inhibit eating behavior • Ghrelin: motivates eating behavior, originates in the stomach, surges before meals then decreases after eating • Sexual Motivation: Kinsey 1930s-50s: researched sex, sexual strategies theory: humans have evolved distinct mating strategies due to different adaptive problems o Women: need to be highly selective, number of children is biologically limited, have a certainty who their children are, will search for a man with resources to support offspring o Men: can ensure reproductive success by inseminating with many women, can father an unlimited number of children, lack of certainty about paternity, maximize gene pool, young and physically healthy women • Buss 1989 sexual response cycle: excitement  plateau  orgasm  resolution Chapter 4: • Sensation: bringing information about the outside world to the brain o Raw data is filtered by limitation of our sense o Is limited • • Gustation: the sense of taste • Haptic sense: the sense of touch • Olfaction: the sense of smell • Audition: the sense of sound • Kinesthetic: the ability to judge • Vestibular: ability to judge the where one’s body and limbs are direction and intensity of head in space movements/balance • • Information is received by senses (indirectly) and is affected by properties of the sensory system 1. Sensory organs receive energy/are stimulated by the environment o Eyes-light energy, ears-acoustic energy, skin-mechanical energy, tongue/nose-molecular stim 2. Sensory receptors convert this energy into neural signals which are sent ot the brain • Absolute Threshold: the smallest detectable level of a stimulus • Just noticeable difference: the smallest detectable change in intensity of a stimulus • Weber’s Law: relationship: JND is constantly proportional to initial intensity. Vision 1.6%  Taste 33.3% • Transduction: converting a stimulus into a neural signal, neural impulses when physical/chemical stimulus is recieved • Frequency Theory: frequency of a sound is encoded by the rate of neural firing, neurons fire once per cycle 100 Hz tone = 100 action potentials/second o Problem: neurons have a refractory period of the axon  incapable of explaining how we can here sounds greater than 1000 Hz • Place Theory: frequency is encoded by the location of neural firing, different neurons in the ear code for different frequencies o Problem: low frequency sounds use the whole basilar membrane not just one specific part • Current Theory: place coding is used for high frequency and frequency coding is used for low frequencies • Optic Nerve: all the neurons transmitting information to the brain • Photopigments are stimulated by light energy and trigger action potential o Rods: achromatic (no sense of color), greater sensitive in low light, found in retina periphery o Cones: chromatic, not as sensitive to light, found more in center of retina (fovea), 3 types: S,M,L (s fires most intensely,
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