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Michael Inzlicht

Article 2: Jet Lag: • Jet lag can increase risk of deep vein thrombosis • Jet lag noticed when 3 or more time zones crossed • Difference between it and travel fatigue is that the symptoms do not disappear after a good night’s sleep. Instead, stakes a couple of days, equal to about 2/3 the number of time zones o Plus it’s noticed even w/ lab settings that discount meal/culture reasons • Jet lag also can cause gastrointestinal disturbances and poor performance during the daytime on both physical and mental tasks • Unclear why it’s worse w/ older ppl. Old also have less regular, lower amplitude circadian + phase-advanced body temp and melatonin rhythms • Agomelatine = melatonin agonist, can promote phase advances in elderly men if given in eveing • Exercise around bedtime can induce phase delays • Flights to east are associated w/ more jet lag (linked with delayed sleep onset) o Flights in either direction linked w/ fractionated sleep o Westward flight associated with a sleep onset that’s too early and waking prematurely bc rising core temp but falling melatonin • Experience of lots of travel (i.e. w/ air crew) does not seem to protect • SCN is a paired group of cells on either side of midline at base of hypothal o Have melatonin type 2 receptors that receive light info via retinohypothalamaic tract o also input via intergeniculate leaflet (carries info about physical activity/excitement) o clock is formed by cyclic interactions between clock genes and clock proteins o genetic info for clock is mostly preserved btwn species • phase-response curve = relation btwn time of presentation of zeitgeber and phase shift prod • there is a resistance to phase shifting for naps or middle of the night trips to the bathroom but, this very resistance is the cause of difficulties w/ time zone transitions • sleep is easiest to initiate when really cold (typically occurs between 3 and 7am)/body temp falling. Opposite for waking. • Mental performance + physical stamina/output improves w/ rising core temp • Sleep loss seems to have little effect on muscle strength but top performance also requires components of mood, strategy, and motivation which ARE affected • Disrupted rhythm = decreased amplitude + poor phase adjustment • Heart rate, food intake, physical activity has a large exogenous component • Rectal temp has roughly equal endo, exo components • Melatonin secretion measured in dim light, sleep, mood, mental performance has only a small exo component o Things with a larger endo component, like the above, are worse with eastward flights • Therefore, the various circadian rhythms will adjust to disruption at diff rates • Melatonin secretion irregularities are also related to irregularities w/ menstrual cycle • Also repeated long flights are linked with decreased cog + increases in psychotic + major affective d
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