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PSYC12 finals notes.docx.pdf

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 6 Experiencing PrejudiceSocial StigmaMany people try to fit in with the majority because they want to avoid being singled out for ridicule or treated negatively by others Goffman the unusual characteristics that engender negative evaluations as being indicators of stigmaThe stigmatized person is one who is reduced in our minds from a whole and usual person to a tainted discounted one Stigmas are characteristics that mark the individual as deviant flawed limited spoiled or generally undesirable Stigma encompasses all the familiar situations where prejudice is shown ex racial religious gender age sexual orientation but it also covers any physical behavioral psychological marker that elicits negative evaluations from society Goffman denoted 3 types of stigmas 1Abominations of the body ex Physical deformities being overweight etc2Blemishes of individual character ex Drunkenness 3Tribal stigmas of race nation and religion ex Prejudice against another race Group IdentificationIndividuals faced with external threats showed stronger ingroup identification this has been proven with Jewish people African Americans and women Following research indicated that whether the individual has already strongly personally identified with their stigmatized group with has a major impact on the degree to which that individual disassociates from the groupHighidentifiers are much more likely to associate themselves with their group even whenespecially whenit has a negative image This is because they derive much of their selfesteem from their identification as a group member Theyre more likely to seek collective strategies against group threat and they make it clear that theyre loyal to their embattled group Lowidentifiers are more likely to dissociate themselves from the group especially when the group has a negative image They feel no special affinity toward or derive no selfesteem from their group Theyre more individualistic and opportunistic in that they will only identify themselves with the group when it would positively affect their social identity Stereotype ThreatStereotype threat individuals in stereotyped groups are often ever vigilant about not behaving in ways that confirm stereotypes about ones group Doing so would appear to lend evidence to support the legitimacy of the stereotype in others eyes so theyll engage in performancelimiting behavior in order to provide a ready excuse for their expected poor performance on the stereotyperelevant dimension Research suggests that stereotype threat has its effects through the mediating influence of a drop in workingmemory capacity Effects of stereotype threat most likely to occur in people who strongly identify with the stereotyped group and in individuals who are selfconscious of their stigmatized status People under stereotype threat fare worse physiologically than nonthreatened counterpartsBlack participants showed significantly higher blood pressure than their nonthreatened counterparts May explain blacks higher incidence of heart disease and high blood pressureTheres a stereotype of black people and intelligence they perform poorly compared with others on measures of intellectual abilities Statistics on standardized aptitude and intelligence tests over the decades show that blacks consistently average 15 points less compared with CaucasiansMost researchers agree that the reasons for this gap was SES disadvantages that are embedded into standardized intelligence tests and discrimination and prejudice that they face from others But this doesnt explain the finding that even when blacks and Caucasians have the same preparation blacks still achieve less ie Poorer GPA time to graduation etcMaybe its because of stereotype threatThey found that when blacks believed that a difficult verbal test was a measure of their intellectual ability compared to those who were not told this they underperformed compared to Caucasians in the abilitydiagnostic condition intellectual ability but performed as well as Caucasians in the nondiagnostic condition Also even making the stereotype salient ex checking off race in questionnaire impaired performance of blacks even in nondiagnostic conditions SteeleAronson Metaanalysis by Walton and Cohen suggests that the disparity seen in black performance with stereotype threat may also be due to stereotype liftnonstigmatized persons seem to experience a performance enhancement when they engage in a downward comparison between themselves and a member of a stereotyped outgroup So even when black and white people are similarly prepared educationally and have the same abilities the influence of stereotype lift may be a contributing factor that might explain continued performance discrepanciesBeing a member of a stereotyped group can also affect the degree of ones selfconfidence about performance on the stereotyperelevant dimension Research by Aronson and Inzlicht found that those who were higher in stereotype vulnerability the tendency to expect perceive and be influenced by stereotypes about ones social category tended to be the least in touch with the quality of their performances on a stereotyperelevant task They werent able to accurately predict what they knew relative to the demands of the test Because of their inaccuracy their academic stereotype domain related selfconfidence was subject to stronger fluctuationsResearch with women reveals similar results Theres the common stereotype that women are less capable in science and maths Quinn and Spencer manipulated a math exam by telling participants that the math exam was diagnostic or not diagnostic of their math ability for male and females who had matched math backgrounds and skills measured by SAT and calculus gradesResults showed that when women believed that the exam was diagnostic they performed poorly compared with their male counterparts When women believed it wasnt diagnostic they performed as well as other males Simply completing a math test in a group in which she is the sole woman seems to make salient the stereotype of womens poor math performance and women performed poorly compared to women completing the exam with other women Researchers looked at stereotype threat with being old and being poorWhen people of low SES believe that they might confirm a common stereotype about them theyll perform poorly on measures of intellectual ability relative to those who arent poor their performance suffers on perceived diagnostic measures relative to those who arent poor When the exam wasnt diagnostic they performed as well as their affluent counterpartsResearchers found a stereotype threat effect in whites that take the IAT arising from their anxiety about obtaining a score that might indicate theyre racist When Aronson Fried and Good told backs that the trait being studiedintelligence was malleable not a fixed traitthis lead participants to be more resistant to the influence of stereotype threat and they showed better performance on the intelligence test and their GPAs were higher BUT the ability to be unaffected by a stereotype against ones group becomes must more difficult to the degree that ones identity is closely tied to membership in that group Other research has shown that stereotypethreat effects can be greatly reduced when people from the stereotyped group are individuated ones ability is made more salient distancing self from group in these cases they outperformed their nonindividuated counterpartsEx reminding women about achievements by other women greatly reduced stereotype threat on their math test scoresCheryan and Bodenhausen examined the influence of salient positive stereotypes on ones task performancethat is if the stereotype about your group is that you do especially well on a task could that stereotype potentially enhance or impair ones performanceThey looked at Asians and math scoresWhen Asian American women were exposed to an identitysalience manipulation by completing a survey about their ethnic group their gender or their individual identity They then completed a math testResults when participants ethnic identity was made salient their math performance was significantly worse than when their personal or gender identity was made salient BUT the opposite was found by Ambady et al Why the Asian discrimination
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