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Michael Inzlicht

Genetic and biological foundations Although there is evidence that people might possess specific genes that have specific effects, it is the expression of those genes (turning on and off) as much as mere possession that makes us who we are. Need to understand how physiological processes affect behavior, thought and emotion and how physiological processes are shaped by the environment how nurture influences nature. GENETIC AND NEUROCHEMICAL LEVELS Genetic Basis of Psychological Science Human Genome Projec t international research effort to map the entire structure of human genetic material Within every cell in the body is the genome for making the entire organism: master recipe that provides detailed instructions for everything from how to grow gall bladder to where place nose on face. Whether a cell becomes gall bladder or where nose is on face depends on which genes are turned on or off within thll this is determined from cues outside the cell The genome provides the option and the environment determines which option is taken Genetics typically used to describe how characteristics such as height, hair color, and weight are passed along through inheritance, but it also refers to those processes that are involved in turning genes off and on Chromosomes within each cell, structures made up of genes. Typical human has 23 pairs, half of each pair coming from each parent Genes in turn are components of substance calleNconsists of 2 intertwined strands of molecules of sugar, phosphate and nitrogen precise sequence of these molecules along DNA strand specifies an exact instruction, through production of RNA, to manufacture distinct proteins (make up cell structure and direct their activities) Gene segment of DNA that is involved in producing proteins that carry out specific tasks. Not only how to produce specific proteins but when to produce them , determined by environment Gene expression process by which gene produces RNA and then protein. Not only determines physical makeup of body but also remains important throughout life and is involved in psychological activity. the complexity of humans is not due to simply our possessing a large number of genes, but more likely due to subtleties in the way that genes are expressed and regulated 1. Heredity involves passing along genes through reproduction Selective breeding experimental technique for studying genetics. Mendel could strictly control which plants were bred with which other plants Alleles 2 versions of a gene, if differ one dominant and one recessive Dominant genes expressed in offspring whenever present Recessive genes expressed only when matched with similar gene from other parent therefore existence of dominant and recessive means not all genes are outwardly expressed Genotype genetic constitution of an organism, actual genetic makeup determined at moment of conception Phenotype observable physical characteristics that result from both genetic and environmental influences * could have same phenotype but different genotype. Environment affects phenotype: good nutrition increase size, suntan affect on color of skin Polygenic effects characteristics, influenced by many genes and environment. Most human traits and diseases are polygenic. 2. Genotype variation is created by sexual reproduction
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