Book notes, ch 7

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 7 J Human Memory * Encoding: Getting Information into Memory N Encoding involves forming a memory code What is the Role of Attention? What are the Levels of Processing? N Levels-of-Processing Theory: Proposes that deeper levels of processing results in longer-lasting memory codes What is Enriching Encoding? o Elaboration N Elaboration: linking a stimulus to other information at the time of encoding o Visual Imagery N Dual-coding Theory: holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall o Self-Referent Encoding N Self-Referent Encoding: involves deciding how or whether information is personally relevant * Storage: Maintaining Information in Memory N Storage: involves maintaining encoded information in memory over time What is Sensory Memory? N Sensory Memory: preserves info in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second What is Short-Term Memory? N Short-Term Memory (STM): a limited-capacity store that can maintain unrehearsed info for up to about 20 seconds N Rehearsal: The process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information o Durability of Storage o Capacity of Storage N Chunk: a group of familiar stimuli stored as a single unit o [email protected],K}Z^J}l]L2,K}_ What is Long-Term Memory? N Long-Term Memory (LTM): unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time N Flashbulb Memories: which are unusually vivid and detailed recollections of momentous events Are Short-Term Memory and Long-Term Memory Really Separate? How is Knowledge Represented and Organized in Memory? o Clustering and Conceptual Hierarchies N Clustering: the tendency to remember similar or related items in groups N Conceptual Hierarchy: multilevel classification system based on common properties among items o Schemas N Schema: an organized cluster of knowledge about a particular object or event abstracted from previous experience with the object or event o Semantic Networks N Semantic Network: consists of nodes representing concepts, joined together by pathways that link related concepts o Connectionist Networks and Parallel Distributed Processing (PDP) Models
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