Book notes, ch 12

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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 12- Personality: Theory, Research, and Assessment * The Nature of Personality Defining Personality: Consistency and Distinctiveness N Personality: An ]L]]o[Z unique constellation of consistent behavioral traits Personality Traits: Dispositions and Dimensions N Personality Trait: A durable disposition to behave in a particular way in a variety of situations N Factor Analysis: In this correlations among many variables are analyzed to identify closely related clusters of variables The Five-Factor Model of Personality Traits 1) Extraversion 2) Neuroticism 3) Openness to Experience 4) Agreeableness 5) Conscientiousness * Psychodynamic Perspectives N Psychodynamic Theories: Include all the diverse theories secended from the work of Sigmund Freud, which focus on unconscious mental forces [Z Psychoanalytic Theory o Structure of Personality N Id: The primitive, instinctive component of personality that operates according to the pleasure principle N Pleasure Principle: Demands immediate gratification of its urges N Ego: The decision-making component of personality that operates according to the reality principle N Zo]9]L ]o9^lZ}o2]] ]}L}Z][Z2ZL]o}]}oZL situations can be found N Superego: The moral component of personality that incorporates social standards about what represents right and wrong o Level of Awareness N Conscious: Consists of whatever one is aware of at a particular point in time N Preconscious: contains material just beneath the surface of awareness that can easily be retrieved N Unconscious: Contains thoughts, memoires, and desires that are well below the surface of conscious awareness but that nonetheless exert great influence on behavior o Conflict and the Tyranny of Sex and Aggression o Anxiety and Defense Mechanisms N Defense Mechanisms: Largely unconscious reactions that protect a person from unpleasant emotions such as anxiety and guilt N Rationalization: Creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior N Repression: Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in the unconscious N Identification: bolstering self-esteem by forming an imaginary or real alliance with some ppl or group o Development: Psychosexual stages N Psychosexual Stages: Developmental periods with a characteristic focus that leave their mark on adult personality
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