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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

PSY100 Chapter 2 Research Methodology Key Terms replication Repetition of an experiment to conrm the results. theory A model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what is observed and makes predictions about future events. hypothesis A specic prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct. research Scientic process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data. data Objective observations or measurements. variable Something in the world that can be measured and that can vary. operational denition The quantication of a variable that allows it to be measured. experiment A study that tests causal hypotheses by measuring and manipulating variables. independent variable In an experiment, the condition that is manipulated by the experimenter to examine its impact on the dependent variable. dependent variable In an experiment, the measure that is affected by manipulation of the independent variable. confound Anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions of a study random assignment The procedure for placing research participants into the conditions of an experiment in which each participant has an equal chance of being assigned to any level of the independent variable. correlational study A research method that examines how variables are naturally related in the real world, without any attempt by the researcher to alter them. third-variable problem When the experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable and therefore cannot be condent that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause of differences in the dependent variable. descriptive study A research method that involves observing and noting the behaviour of people or other animals in order to provide a systematic and objective analysis of behaviour.
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