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Study notes on Learning & Reward. date not accurate

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

LEARNING AND REWARD Learning: a relatively enduring in behaviour that results from experience which may benefit organisms by adapting their behaviour to their environment. Conditioning: connecting environmental stimuli with a behavioural response. Making associations! Classical Conditioning: associating two events or stimuli : learning that the occurrence of one event will be coupled with another. Ex: if you walk in the rain, you will get wet. Operant Conditioning: learning that a specific behaviour leads to a particular outcome. Ex: Altering an animals behaviour by REWARD & punishment*bf.s o Behaviour Modification: operant conditioning on humans PAVLOVIAN EXPERIMENTS: Couple a neutral stimulus NS (one which does not produce a response) with one that elicits an unconditioned response US(one which is not learned, are automatic) called an unconditioned stimulus. The organism will associate the neutral stimulus with the unconditioned stimulus, and will respond to it in the same way it responds to the US. Therefore, it becomes a conditioned response to a conditioned stimulus: the organism has learned a response. Acquisition: the initial learning of a behaviour. Gradual formation of an association between US & CS contiguity: stimuli must occur near to each other in time. (stronger if briefer delay between CS & US) Extinction: Unlearning behaviours when they are no longer adaptive, or when the CS no longer predicts or occurs in conjunction with the US. Spontaneous Recovery: ability to recover an extinguished CR (conditioned response) quickly but temporarily when it is relevant. Generalization: stimuli similar to but NOT identical to a CS elicit the same CR. This is necessary because a CS is rarely experienced repeatedly in the same exact way. Discrimination: ability to differentiate between similar stimuli when necessary Second-Order Conditioning: when a CS becomes associated with stimuli that are associated with the UR. Ex: bell = food. Bell+ square = food Square = food Phobias: an acquired fear of a stimulus that is out of proportion to its threat Develop through generalization of a fear experience
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