PSYCH CH. 1.doc

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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 1 The Evolution of Society IntroductionOne of the reasons that students and researchers are drawn to psychology is that it has much to offer in the analysis and possible prevention of social problems such as bullyingoPsychologists seek to describe explain and predict why such behaviours occurPsychology is practical it is also a way of thinkingPsychology covers a great variety of topicsoIt looks at different topics such as work sleep stress trauma and brain functionHow Psychology DevelopedThe term psychology was derived from two Greek words psychesoul spirit or mind and logosthe study of a subjectthBy 18 century the term psychology is referred to as the study of the mindThe Contributions of Wundt and HallWilhelm Wundt oA German professor who is widely known as the founder of psychology oCreated a campaign to make psychology an independent study rather than a branch of philosophy or physiologyoAdvocated a scientific approach to psychology Declared that psychology should be a science modelled after fields like physics and chemistryoEstablished the first formal lab for research in psychology in 1879 psychologys date of birthoIn 1881 established the first journal to publish research on psychologyoDeclared that the primary focus for psychology is consciousnessthe awareness of immediate experienceThis orientation kept psychology focused on the mind and mental processesBut the methods psychologists use to investigate the mind must be as scientific as those chemists and physicistsG Stanley HalloStudied briefly with WundtoImportant contributor to the rapid growth of psychology in AmericaoLaunched a series of firsts for American psychologyEstablished Americas first research lab in psychology at Johns Hopkins University 1883Launched Americas first psychology journalHe was the driving force behind the establishment of American Psychological Association APAAPA became the largest organization in the world devoted to advancement of psychologyBattle of Schools Structuralism vs FunctionalismStructuralismoBased on the notion that the task of psychology is to analyze consciousness into its basic elements and investigate how these elements are relatedie to examine the fundamental component of conscious experience such as sensations feelings and imagesotheory is led by Edward Titchener omost of their work concerned sensation and perception in vision hearing and touchomethod of examination introspectionintrospectionthe careful systematic selfobservation of ones own conscious experienceintrospection requires training to make the subject the person being studied more objective and more awareonce trained the subjects are exposed to auditory tones optical illusions and visual stimuli under controlled and systematically varied conditions and they are asked to analyze what they experiencelimitations of introspection if you depend solely on an individuals reflection of document a phenomenon there is no independent objective evaluation of that claim since no one can be completely objectiveFunctionalismoBased on the belief that psychology should investigate the function or purpose of consciousness rather than its structureoTheory is led by William JamesoJames is known for his work Principles of Psychology 1890Became standard reading for generations of psychologists
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