PSYCH CH. 3.doc

21 Pages
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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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Description
Chapter 3 The Biological Bases of BehaviourFocus of the chapter study of the brain and its relations to behaviour and to discover which part of the brain is associated with which functionsbehavioursCommunication in the Nervous SystemNervous systemoHandles information it is a complex communication network in which signals are transmitted received and integratedNervous TissueNervous system is living tissue composed of cells 2 major categoriesoGliaCells found throughout the nervous system that provide various types of support for neuronsTend to be smaller than neurons but outnumbers neurons 10 to 1Glia cells50 of the brains volumeSupply nourishment to neurons help remove neurons waste products and provide insulation around many axons myelin sheathNew research suggest that glial cells may also send and receive chemical signalsMay play an important role in memory formationGradual deterioration of glial tissue might contribute to the emergence of Alzheimers Some types of glia can detect neural impulses and send signals to other glial cellsoNeuronIndividual cells in the nervous system that receive integrate and transmit informationBasic links that allow communication to occur within the nervous systemMost communicate with other neuronsSmall minority receive signals from outside the nervous system sensory organs or carry messages from the nervous system to the muscles that move the bodyCommon featuresSoma cell bodyoContains the cell nucleus and much of the chemical machinery common to most cellsDendritesoParts of a neuron that are specialized to receive informationAxonoLong thin fibre that transmit signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glandsoIn humans many axons are wrapped by myelinMyelin sheathoHigh concentration of a white fatty substanceoInsulating material derived from glial cellsoSpeeds up the transmission of signals that move along axonsIf axons myelin sheath deteriorates its signals may not be transmitted effectively loss of muscle control in multiple sclerosis is due to degeneration of myelin sheathsTerminal buttonsoSmall knobs where the axon ends in a clusteroSecrete chemicals called neurotransmitters serve as messengers that may activate neighbouring neuronsSynapsesoThe points at which neurons interconnect and information is transmitted from one neuron to anotheroInfo is received at the dendrites passed through the soma and along the axon and is transmitted to the dendrites of other cells at meeting points called synapsesNeural Impulse Using Energy to Send InformationNeuron at RestNeural impulse is a complex electrochemical reactionInside and outside the neuron are fluids containing electrically charged molecules and atoms ionsCell membrane semipermeable allows movement of some ions
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