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Dax Urbszat

Chapter 7 Human MemoryBackgroundSemantic memory memory for general informationEpisodic memory memory for personal eventsEncodingoInvolves forming a memory codeoEg when you form a memory code for a word you might emphasize how it looks how it sounds or what it meansoEncoding usually requires attentionoAnalogous to entering data using a computer keyboardStorage oinvolves maintaining encoded information in memory over timeoanalogous to saving data in a file on your computeroour memories change over time and are rough reconstructions rather than exact copies of past eventsRetrievaloInvolves recovering information from memory storesoAnalogous to calling up a file and then displaying it on your computer monitorEncoding Getting Information into MemoryNextinline effectoIf participants in a small group take turns speaking to the group subsequent memory test reveal that the subject tend to not recall much of what was said just before they took their turn Because when participants are next in line to speak they are too preoccupied rehearsing to pay attention to what is being saidoNextinline effect illustrates that active encoding is a crucial process in memoryThe Role of AttentionYou generally need to pay attention to information if you intend to remember itAttentionoInvolves focusing awareness on a narrowed range of stimuli or eventsoOften likened to a filter that screens out most potential stimuli while allowing a select few to pass through into conscious awarenessCocktail party phenomenonsuggests that attention involves late selection based on the meaning of inputoie stimuli are screened out late after the brain has processed the meaning or significance of the inputample evidence have supported both early selection and late selection as well as for intermediate selectionothese findings have led some theorists to conclude that the location of the attention filter may be flexible rather than fixedLavieoThe location of our attention filter depends on the cognitive load of current information processing oWhen we are attending to complicated highload tasks that consume much of our attentional capacity selection tends to occur earlyoWhen we are involved in simpler lowload tasks more attentional capacity is left over to process the meaning of distractions allowing for later selectionWhenever filtering occurs it is clear that people have difficulty if they attempt to focus their attention on two or more inputs simultaneouslyStudies show that when participants are forced to divide their attention between memory encoding and some other task large reductions in memory performance are seenModel of selective attentionEarlyselection models propose that input is filtered before meaning is processedLateselection models hold that filtering occurs after theprocessing of meaningThere is evidence to support early late and intermediate selection suggesting that the location of the attentional filter may not be fixedNegative impact of divided attentionDivided attention are not limited to memoryDivided attention can have a negative impact on the performance of quite a variety of tasksoEspecially when the tasks are complex or unfamiliarResearch suggest that the human brain can effectively handle only one attentionconsuming task at a timeWhen people multitask they are switching their attention back and forth among tasks rather that processing them simultaneouslyEg research shows that cellphone conversations undermine peoples driving performanceeven when handsfree phones are usedthey increase the chances of missing traffic signals and slowed down reactions to signals that were detectedLynn HasheroSuggest that though much of the information we want to remember is encoded as a result of effortful processing some types of information may be acquired more automaticallyoEffortful processingYou are picking up information because you are intentionally attempting to do sooAutomatic processing
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