PSYCH NOTES CH. 11.doc

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Department
Psychology
Course Code
PSY100H1
Professor
Dax Urbszat

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Description
Ch 11 Human Development Across the Life SpanTLDRtoo long didnt reada summary of above pointsDevelopment def the sequence of agerelated changes that occur as a person progresses from conception to deathDivided into 4 periods prenatal childhood adolescence and adulthoodProgress before Birth Prenatal DevelopmentZygote onecalled organism formed by the union of a sperm and an eggPrenatal period extends from conception to birth usually encompassing nine months of pregnancyThe Course of Prenatal Development3 phases germinal stage first 2 weeks embryonic stage 2 weeks to 2 months and the fetal stage 2 months to birthGerminal StageDef the first phase of prenatal development encompassing the first two weeks after conceptionAfter zygote is formed rapid cell division begins within 36 hours and the zygote becomes a microscopic mass of multiplying cellsThis mass of cells migrates along the mothers fallopian tubes to the uterine cavitythOn the 7 day the cell mass implants itself in the uterine wall which takes about a week At this point many zygotes are rejected about 20 of pregnancies end w the woman not even aware that conception has happened During implantation the placenta begins to form def a structure that allows oxygen and nutrients to pass into the fetus from the mothers bloodstream and bodily wastes to pass out to the motherEmbryonic StageDef second stage of prenatal development lasting from two weeks until the end of the second monthMost of the vital organs and bodily systems begin to form such as the heart spine and brainAbout 25 cm long its already beginning to look humanMost miscarriages and major structural birth defects are due to problems that occur during this stageFetal StageDef third stage of prenatal development lasting from two months through birthFirst two months bring rapid bodily growth muscles n bones which allows the fetus to physically rd move Organs continue to grow and begin to function Sex organs begin to develop during the 3monthDuring the final 3 months of the prenatal period brain cells multiply briskly A layer of fat is deposited under the skinand the respiratory and digestive systems mature Bw 2226 weeks age of viability the baby can survive in the event of a premature birth Eventually probability of survival climbs steadily past 23 weeks until it reaches 85 at 2628 weeksEnvironmental Factors and Prenatal DevelopmentMaternal NutritionPrenatal malnutrition may have negative effects decades after a childs birth ex low birth weight is associated with an increased risk of heart disease and diabetes in middle adulthoodMaternal Drug UseMost drugs consumed by a pregnant woman can pass through the membranes of the placenta and all recreational drugs are can be harmful to the fetusFetal alcohol syndrome def a collection of congenital inborn problems associated with excessive alcohol use during pregnancy Problems include microcephaly small head heart defects irritability hyperactivity and delayed mental and motor development FAS is the most common known cause of
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