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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 11. Human Development 1. Critical period A development stage during which young animals are able to acquire specific skills and knowledge. if lacks this, they cannot acquire at a later point in development. brain development goes thru periods during which certain connections are most easily made, assuming the right stimulus is provided. = Genie was trying to learn languages at a later age, but it was limited since she missed this critical period. Thus, critical period is very important. 2. Sensitive periods The specific points in development at which some skills are most easily learned. Ex) learning second or third languages at a later year. * Attachment promotes Survival 1. Attachment: a strong emotional connection that persists over time and across circumstances > infant attachment leads to heightened feelings of safety and security. > Infants have highly interactive social relationships. > Infants are profoundly affected by the facial expressions of their caregivers within 10 weeks after birth and may become very upset when their mothers fail to display emotional reactions. > Attachment serves to motivate infants and caregivers to stay in close contact. > Attachment is adaptive > Infants who exhibit attachment behaviours have a higher chance of survival and consequently are more likely to pass along their genes to future generations. 2. Imprinting : birds will attach themselves, usually to their mothers, and then follow the object of their attachment. 3. Harry Harlow: infants need comfort and security in addition to food. >Rhesus monkeys > Wire mom vs. cloth mom infants were calmer, braver, and overall better adjusted when near the cloth mother. > Harlows findings established the importance of contact comfort, allowing an infant to cling to and hold something soft in social development. 3. Mary Ainsworth Strange Situation Test Three types of child attachment 1. Secure attachment: 65% of children, A secure child is happy to play alone and is friendly to the stranger while the attachment figure is present. If attachment disappears, the child started crying, upset and stressed. When the attachment returns, he wants to be hugged and comforted by the attachment 2. Avoidance attachment : 20~25% of children, avoidant children do not appear distressed or upset by the attachment figures departure. If upset, comforted by stranger. If the attachment returns, the child ignore the attachment. 3. Anxious ambivalent attachment: 10~15% of children, A child is anxious throughout the test. The child becomes inconsolably upset when the attachment leaves. When return, the child will both elicit and reject caring contact. 4. Chemistry of Attachment Oxytocin is related to social behaviours, including infant and caregiver attachment. 5. Parents play an important role in shaping the way their children view themselves as members of society. * Perception introduces the World* 1. Infants tend to look more at stimuli that interest them 2. They will look longer at novel (new) stimuli than at familiar stimuli. Thus, preferential looking technique is used in many perceptual tests.
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