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Exam Review

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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Psychology Exam Review Chapter 1 Introduction Psychology: study of mind, brain, and behaviour 4 Themes of Psychological Science: 1. Principles are cumulative 2. Biological Revolution - Brain Chemistry: brain works through actions of chemicals known as neurotransmitters (communicate messages between nerve cells) - Human Genome: basic genetic code of the human body - Working brain: neuroscience. There is some localization of brain processes, but many different brain regions participate to produce behaviour and mental activity 3. Mind has been shaped by evolution (adaptive) - Our brain has constantly been upgraded throughout history - Culture, globalization 4. Many different levels of analysis: - Interdisciplinary effort - Social, individual, biological Intellectual Origins of Psychology - Philosophy and medicine - Nature nurture debate - Environment and biology play equally important roles Mind-body area: are the mind and body separate and distinct or is the mind simply the subjective experience of the physical brain? Dualism: mind and body are separate yet intertwined Scientific Foundations - We study mental activity through systematic observation and experimentation Structuralism: conscious experience can be broken down into its basic elements Functionalism: concerned with the function of the brain Gestalt Theory: the whole is different than the sum of the parts Psychoanalysis: attempting to bring the contents of the unconscious into conscious awareness Behaviourism: emphasizing role of environmental forces Chapter 2 Research Methodology Empirical Question: theory hypothesis data Operational definition: quantification of a variable that allows it to be measured Confound: anything that affects a dependent variable that may unintentionally vary between the different experimental conditions of a study - A correlational study cannot show causation rd 3 Variable problem: when experimenter cannot directly manipulate the independent variable, therefore, we cant be sure that another, unmeasured variable is not the actual cause for the differences in the dependent variable. Electrophysiology: measures electrical activity in the brain www.notesolution.comEvent related potential: measures the patterns associated with specific events Positron-emission tomography: assesses metabolic activity by using a radioactive substance injected into the bloodstream MRI: imaging uses magnetic field fMRI: sees how brain works while doing different tasks 5 Data-Collection Methods: 1. Observation 2. Asking people 3. Measure responsestimulus 4. Measure activity in brain 5. Use of animals Validity: extent to which the data collected addresses the research hypothesis in the way intended Reliability: extent to which a measure is stable and consistent over time in similar conditions Inferential Stats: set of procedures used to make judgments about whether differences actually exist between sets of numbers Chapter 3 Genetic and Biological Foundations Nervous System: communication network that serves as foundation for all psychological activity Synapse: site for chemical communication between neurons 3 Types of neurons: 1. Sensory neurons 2. Motor neurons 3. Inter neurons Somatosensory: sensations experienced from within the body Action Potential: neural impulse that passes along the axon and subsequently causes the release of chemicals from the terminal buttons (neuronal firing) Resting Membrane Potential: electrical charge of a neuron when it is not active - Different charge inside and outside the neuron: polarization Depolarization: causes change in permeability of cell membrane causes sodium to rush into neuron causes excitatory signals - Neurons fire when cell membrane is depolarized past a certain threshold - An action potential is generated when there are more excitatory signals, which cause depolarization - Myelin sheath insulates sections of the axon and facilitates the passage of electrical impulses Neurotransmitter: chemical substances that carry signals across the synaptic cleft - Receptors receive neurotransmitters - Reuptake, enzyme deactivation, and auto-receptors can halt influence of transmitters in the synaptic cleft Reuptake: neurotransmitters molecules are taken back into the presynaptic terminal buttons Enzyme deactivation: when an enzyme destroys the transmitter substance in the synaptic cleft Auto-receptors: monitor the release of neurotransmitter Agonist: drugs that enhance actions of neurotransmitters Antagonists: drugs that inhibit actions of neurotransmitters Acetylcholine: motor movement and complex thought Monoamines: arousal and motivation GABA & Glutamate: general inhibition and excitation
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