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Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 4 The brain and Consciousness Epilepsy: debilitating affliction in which seizures, uncontrolled storms of electrical activity begin in some part of brain and spread Penfields patient undergone surgery, deactivating some regions reactivated regions closely connected to that region Egyptians: viewed heart as more important Later realized brain was essential for central functioning- idea comes from those with brain injury (roman gladiators) Early 1900,anz Gall and Johann Spurzhproposed theory of phrenology based on idea that assessing personality traits and mental abilities by measuring bumps on the human skull Pierre Fluorens believe brain function as one unit Expt on bird and rodent by removing part of their brain and obs effect on behaviour Karl Lashley used same method to identify where learning occurs Conceded specific brain regions involved in motor control and sensory experiences All parts of brain contributed to mental ability (Equipotentiality) Theory discredited this day bc brain function as parts Paul Broca Performed autopsy on Mr. Leborgne before death, a patient only able to say word tan but understand language Lesion in left brainage production Left frontal region known as area Brain Imaging techniques available now! What are the basic brain structures and their functions? How brain is adaptive First nervous system was very brief Todays brain is best viewed as a collection of interacting neuronal circuits that have accumulated and developed throughout human evolution Through process of adapting to environment, brain more specialized at performing different tasks The spinal cord is capable of autonomous function Spinal cord is a rope of neural tissue runs inside hollows of vertebrae from pelvis up to base of skull Segmented Contain gray matter and white matter Grey matter are cell bodies of neurons White matter are axons and fatty sheath Gray and white also in brain www.notesolution.com Sensory info from body enter spinal cord and passed up to brain Spinal cord take action on its own Strech reflex Spinal reflex Conversion of sensation in to action by neurons reflex present throughout skeletal musculature and to maintain joint position All muscles have stretch receptors inside them to sense changes in length Receptors are dendritic tips of receptor neurons whose cell bodies located in spinal Cord, stetching muscle cause receptor neurons connected to it to fire Stretching the muscle causes the stretch receptor neurons to fire, which causes the motor neurons to increase their firing, which contracts the muscles The brainstem houses the basic programs of survival Spinal cord continues into brainstem, which houses most basic programs of survival Brainstem House basic programs of survival: breathing, swallowing Perform similar functions for head as spinal cord for body House reflexes eg. Gagging Has nerve connecting it to skin and muscle of head and sense organs Use reflexes of spinal cord to produce useful behaviour Stimulating brainstem disconnected to rest of brain can allow animal to start walking Reticular formation (part of brainstem) Network of neurons in brainstem project up into cerebral cortex and affect arousal Induce and terminating stages of sleep Brainstem without brain can still walk around and show basic normal behaviour Cerebellum is essential for movement (empathy and motor) Little brain Protuberance connected to back of brainstem Supplementary brain Lesion to different parts of cerebellum produce different effects Cellular organization identical throughout Important for proper motor function Damage to little nodes at bottom cause balance problems Damage to ridge running up its back affects walking Damage to bulging lobes on either side cause loss of limb coordination Allows independent and unconscious skills (eg. Ride bike and thinking what to eat for lunch) Cognitive process eg. Making plans, rmb events, emotion Activation of cerebellum when people experience pain or loved on experience pain Involved inrience of empathy www.notesolution.com
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