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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 5 Sensation perception and attentionPerception is our bridge with the worldIn order to perceive we rely on our sense organseyes ear skin nose tongueWe are only sensitive to limited stimuliWays we experience the world into 2 phases sensation and perceptionSensation how our sense organs respond to and detect external stimulus energy and how those responses are transmitted to the braindetectionPerception brains further processing of these signals that ultimately results in an internal representation of stimuli and conscious experience of the worldConstruction of useful and meaningful info about the environmentEg Green light emits photo sensed by eye and transmit signal to brain sensationBrain processes neural signals and observer experiences a green light perceptionStudy of bodily systems that convert stimulus energy into useful infoHow do we sense our worldsEvolved through timeStimuli must be coded to be understood by the brainSensory codingDifferent physical environment coded by diff patterns of neural impulsesReceptors are specialized neurons in the sense organ that pass impulses to connecting neurons when they receive phy or chemical stimulation TRANSDUCTIONTransmit info to brain in form of neural impulseSensory info must go through thalamus then send info to cortex interpreted as sight smell sound touch tasteSensory code divided into 2 categories quantitative and qualitativeIntensity brightness determined by firing frequencyColour tasteDifferent receptors types for different stimulusIn most sensory systems except smell receptors provide coarse coding coded by only a few receptors responding to many stimuliPsychophysics relates stimulus to responsePsych and physical stimuliDeveloped by Gustav Fechner how much physical energy needed for us to senseSensory thresholdsmin intensity of stimulation before we can experience a Absolute threshold wwwnotesolutioncomsensationEg Faintest sound we can hear noticeable difference between two stimuliDifference thresholdMin amount of change required for us to detect a differenceWebers law the size of a noticeable diff is based on a relative proportion of difference rather than a fixed amount of differenceEg 96100 and 610Signal detection theoryFlaw to absolute threshold forgot to account for human judgmentDetecting stimulus requires making judgment about its presence or absence based on a subjective interpretation of ambiguous infoTrials to judge whether stimulus was present or notHit yy missyn false alarm ny correct rejection nnResponse bias refers to participants tendency to report detecting the stimulus on ambiguous trialsEg Doctor may tend to say abnormality because treatment doesnt harm patientsCompare hit vs false alarmSensory AdaptationSensitivity to stimuli decreases over timeTuned to detect changes in environment less critical to keep responding to unchanging stimuliEg Construction noise while readingWhat are the basic sensory processesTaste smell touch hear visionIn gustation taste buds are chemical detectorsTaste receptor are taste buds of tongue and mouthMicrovilli at tip of tongue contact with saliva stimulate signal to brainstem region called medulla and to thalamus and cortex produce experience of tasteTaste receptors sweet sour salty bitterDiff taste buds are spread uniformly throughout tongue and mouthTaste relies heavily on sense of smell textureTaste experience occurs in brainIntegration of sensory signals that gives us the experience of tasteIntense taste sensationsupertaster6 times taste buds as normal taster Theyre picky eaters because some taste seem overwhelmingMore sensation isnt always betterIn smell the nasal cavity gathers particles of odourSensing chemical from outside bodywwwnotesolutioncom
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