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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 9 MotivationMotivation factors that energize direct or sustain behaviourMotivational states areEnergizing arouse behaviourDirective guide behaviour toward satisfying goals or needs eg Hunger and eatinghelp people persist behaviour until goal achievedmotives differ in strengthNeeds Drives and Arousal motivate behaviourwe have needs failure to satisfy needs lead to physical or psychosocial impairmentNeed hierarcy survival needs lowest personal growth needs are highest must have basic needs met before achieving higher needsHumanistic psychology we desire food not our stomachSelfactualization person achieves dream and aspirationStronger the need greater motivation to satisfy itDrivesDrives are psychological states activated to satisfy needs arousalArousal physiological activation or increased autonomic response quick heart rate increase sweatinghomeostasis negative feedback modelBasic drives help animals maintain equilibrium Set point indicates homeostasisdrivebehaviour nutrient hunger eatingNeedif a behaviour constantly reduces a drive it becomes a habitHulls theory on Principle of behaviour explains why people do things that dont satisfy their biological needsIncentives are external objects rather than internal drives that motivate behaviourWhy people stay up to study for examArousal and performanceYerkesDodson Law performance increases with arousal up to an optimal point after which it decreases with increasing arousal thus creating an inverted U shapeOptimal amount of arousal is desirablePleasure can motivate adaptive behavioursAnimals persist in act that gives pleasure resist from those that gives painHedonism and adaptivenessBehaviours associated with pleasure often promote animal survival and reproductionReward due to activation of dopamine neuronSome behaviours are motivated for their own sakewwwnotesolutioncom
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