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University of Toronto St. George
Michael Inzlicht

Chapter 11 Human Development Genies case Developmental psych: the study of changes in physiology, cognition, and social behaviour over the life span What shapes a child? Sleep on back vs sleep on stomach Sleep on stomach learned to crawl faster Nature and nurture Development starts in the womb 1 two months: embryo, heart, lungs, liver, kidney, sex organ, nervous system begins to form After two months, its called Physical development Brain nerve cell develop in specific sequence in first 7 months of gestation Forebrain, midbrain, hindbrain begin to form by week 4 Cortex by week 7 Thalamus, hypo by week 10 Basal ganglia and left and right hemisphere by week 12 Brain continues to develop thru childhood into adulthood If mothers thyroid does not produce sufficient levels of thyroid hormones, fetus at risk for lower IQ High stress in mother produce low birth weight and other negative baby syndromes Maternal hormones play important role in autism Teratogens Exposing to teratogens at week 4 interferes with brain development Thalidomide Fetal alcohol syndrome Brain development promotes learning Develop specific areas and functions Brain communicate through synaptic connections Myelinated axons form synapses with other neurons Synaptic pruning: a process whereby synaptic connections in the brain that are frequently used are preserved and those that are not are lost Malnourished children have less myelination, and less energy to interact with others, undermines brain development Both nature and nurture affect physical brain growth Critical learning periods The time in which certain exp must occur for normal brain development such as exposure to visual info during infancy for the normal development of the visual pathways of the brain
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