Psych Chapters 1 - 6 review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY100 Chapter 1-6 review Chapter 1 The 7 themes of PSY science 1) PSY is an Empirical Science Scientific method is used in PSY We need to be able to distinguish b/t good science and bad science Realizing that PSY is an ES helps you grasp the concept better 2) Nature and Nurture are Inextricably Entwined is an individuals PSY attributed more to their nature or Nurture ? regarless, both are needed and as equally important in PSY 3) The Brain and the Mind Are Inseparable Are the body and the mind separate and distinct, or the subjective experience of the physical brain? the Mind/ Body Problem Rene Descartes 1600s Promoted the idea of Dualism - mind and body are separate yet intertwined PSY rejects dualism the mind is what the brain does 4) A New Biological Revolution is Energizing Research What is Consciousness? Where do emotions come from? basic questions that could not be answered Tech advances are allowing us to understand these ideas in 3 new ways : Brain Chemistry brain works through neurotransmitters and communicate messages between cells PSY has been able to identify these chem. Funct. And are becoming helpful in the feild, going so far as helping with MD treatment The Human Genome basic genetic code of the human body, genes affect peoples behaviour Watching the Working Brain Neuroscience has helped to relate brain activity to PSY, and localize certain functions of the brain 5) The Mind is Adaptive Our minds = shaped by evl. Through evolution, some of our ancestors were adapted to survive Our bodies were given adapatve mechanisms to help us survive such as : Solving Adaptive prob. Modern Minds the food we eat gave us the best chance for survival in pre historic times Culture provides adaptive solutions - our cultures help us to adapt differently Ex: west = individualism, East = interdependent 6) PSY crosses levels of Analysis There are 4 levels of Analysis : 1) Biological focuses on brain systems, Neurochemistry, and genetics 2) Individual focuses on Ind. Differences, Perception and behaviour 3) social focuses on our interpersonal behaviour & social cognition 4) Cultural focuses on the cultures thoughts, actions, and behaviours 7) We often Are Unaware of the Multiple Influences on how we think, feel, and act Some factors influence us on an unconscious level it leaves us without knowledge of it happening These unconscious acts occur automatically everyday Ex: group of people who were thinking about professors subconsciously were able to perform better in a game of trivial pursuit than those individual who were told to think about stereotypes for soccer players We are aware of only a fraction of things that influence us How did the Foundations of PSY devel. ? Goes back to Greek origins Plato and Aristotle Confucius emphasized human development and relations Also psych was in Muslim countries John Stewart Mill Suggested in 1843 psych should become a science of obs. And experiment. Structuralism an approach to psych based on the idea that conscious experience can be broken down into its basic underlying components and elements Was Established by Wilhelm Wundt in Leipzig, Germany He wanted to measure conscious experiences, and therefore developed introspection systematic examination of subjective mental experiences that requires people inspect/report on the content of their thoughts Edward Titchener also supported structuralism Functionalism an approach to psych concerned with the adaptive purpose of the minds behaviour Fronted by William James Stream of consciousness continuous series of thought Psych should examine the functions of the mind Gestalt theory based on the idea that the whole of personal experience is different from simply the sum of its constituent elements Formed by Max Wertheimer ( 1912) and Wolfgang Kohler Ex: people see a triangle on a piece of paper, not 3 lines put together Women mad Pioneering Contributions to psych Calkins was one of the first women psych profs. Margaret Flay Washburn first woman to obtain her PH.D. is psych Freud & the Unconscious Sigmund Freud = very famous thinker Was originally in medicine, and realized that his patients problems, for some of them, were psychological He deduced that human behaviour happens at a level of unconsciousness. He believed that the unconscious was somewhat in conflict and could produce mental disorders He also pioneered Psychoanalysis bringing the unconscious to the conscious to present to conflicts affecting a person Also used free association allowing people to talk about anything to reveal conflicts Most Behaviour can be modified by Reward and Punishment John Watson - believed that psych had to stop analyzing things it couldnt see Therefore, he developed Behaviouralism, an approach which places emphasis on the role of environmental forces in producing behaviour Skinner took on Behaviouralism He also denied that metal states existed, but that they were rather an illusion He believed things were done by the events and consequences that followed them Ex: animal goes and gets food in same place b/c successful first time Cognition affects behaviour Human perception can influence behaviour Shown through animals that could learn by observation George A. Miller started as cognitive revolution and started cognitive psych studying how people learn, think , and remember Way that people think influences their behaviour Cognitive neuroscience study of neural mechanism that underlie thought, learning, and memory Social situations shape Behaviour Social psych study of group dynamics in relation to the psychological principles Nazi experiments was evil part of human nature? Almost everyone is influenced by social situations Ex: people go to war b/c their friends go to war, or do things to impress people Is this why we try and impress people? Kurt Lewin and the Field theory emphasis on the interplay between people & environments This allowed social psychologists to analyze complex human emotions and why we participate in things such a prejudice Humans navigate within the social world Psychological Therapy is based in science Carl Roger s and Abraham Maslow people can come to know and accept themselves to reach full potential Treating psych disorders mirrors advancements in science AaronT. Beck was one of the pioneers who would help to correct faulty cognitions Advancements in science has helped people with disorders immensely How Can We Apply Psychological Science? 4 ways: Intuition, logic, Authority, observation Critical Thinking A systematic way of evaluating information to reach reasonable conclusions Psychology is relevant in all aspects of life Chapter 2: Research Methodology Key Terms Scientific Method A systematic procedure of observing and measuring phenomena to answer questions about what happens, when it happens, what causes it and why. Theory A model of interconnected ideas and concepts that explains what observed and makes predictions about future events Hypothesis a specific prediction of what should be observed in the world if a theory is correct Research Scientific process that involves the systematic and careful collection of data Data objective observations and measurements Replication Repetition of experiments to confirm the results Variable - something in the world that can be measured and that can vary Descriptive studies observing and noting behaviour to analyze it objectively Naturalistic Observation a passive descriptive study in which observers do not change or alter ongoing behaviour Participant observation a type of descriptive study in which the researcher is actively involved in the situation Observer bias Systematic errors in observation that occur because of an observers expectations
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