Psych midterm 2 review.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

Psych chapter 7 12 Chapter 7 Key Terms Memory the nervous systems capacity to acquire and retain usable skills and knowledge Change Blindness the common failure to notice large changes in environments Encoding the processes of information so that it can be stored Storage the retention of encoded representations over time that corresponds to some change in the nervous system that registers the event Retrieval the act of recalling or remembering stored information to use it Modal memory model the three stage memory system that involves sensory memory, short term memory, and long term memory Short term memory (STM) a limited capacity memory system that holds information in awareness for brief periods Work memory (WM) an active processing system that keeps different types of information available for current use Chucking organizing information into meaningful units to make it easier to remember Long term memory(LTM) the relatively permanent storage of information Serial position effect the ability to recall items from a list depends on order of presentation, with items presented early or late in the list remembered better than those in the middle Implicit memory the system underlying unconscious memories Explicit memory the processes involved when people remember specific information Declarative memory the cognitive retrieved from explicit memory ; knowledge that can be declared Episodic memory memories for ones personal past experiences Semantic memory memory for knowledge about the world Procedural memory a type of implicit memory that involves motor skills and behavioural habits Prospective memory remembering to do something at some time in the future Schema a hypothetical cognitive structure that helps us perceive, organize, process, and use information Retrieval cue anything that helps a person recall information from memory Encoding specificity principle any stimulus that is encoded along with an experience can later trigger memory for the experience Consolidation a hypothetical process involving the transfer of contents from immediate memory into long term memory Reconsolidation neural processes involved when memories are recalled and stored again for later retrieval Spatial memory memory for the physical environment; it includes things such as location of objects, direction, and cognitive maps Post Traumatic stress Disorder (PTSD) A mental disorder that involves frequent nightmares, intrusive thoughts, and flashbacks related to an earlier trauma. Forgetting the inability to retrieve memory for long term storage Transience the pattern of forgetting over time Proactive interference when prior information inhibits the ability to remember new information Retroactive interference when new information inhibits the ability to remember old information Blocking the temporary inability to remember something that is known Absentmindedness the inattentive ore shallow encoding of events Amnesia deficits in long term memory that results from disease, brain injury, or psychological trauma Retrograde Amnesia the condition in which people lose past memories, such as memories for events, facts, people, or events for personal information Anterograde amnesia an inability to form new memories Flashbulb memories vivid memories for the circumstances in which one of the first learned of a surprising, consequential, or emotionally arousing event Source misattribution memory disorientation that occurs when people misremember the time, place, person, or circumstances involved with a memory Cryptomnesia a type of misattribution that occurs when a person thinks he or she has come up with a new idea, yet has only retrieved a stored idea and failed to attribute the idea to its proper source Suggestibility - the development of biased memories when people are provided with misleading information Source Amnesia a type of amnesia that occurs when a person shows memory for an event but cannot remember where he or she encountered the information Confabulation the unintended false recollection of episodic memory Memory bias the changing of memories over time in ways consistent with current beliefs Mnemonics strategies for improving memory Misattribution misremembering the circumstances that are involved with the memory Chapter 7 key concepts Attention affects what is remembered All of our senses have an effect on the way we pay attention Attention is important to all daily tasks, however it is selective Anne Treisman - stated that we identify primitive features, such as colour, shape, orientation etc.. Our auditory attention has been adaptive to be selective E.C. Cherry Cocktail party phenomenon can focus on a single conversation in chaos but are distracted when you hear your name Donald Broadbent & the filter theory explained the nature of attention. Assumed that people have a limited capacity for sensory information and thus we screen information, and let important information in will screening out the useless information Change blindness shows how attention influences memory Attention helps people focus on important objects in their environments Attention has a rapid process that searches for one feature and a slower, serial process that searches for multiple features one at time Stages of Memory Goes from the encoding stage, to the storage stage, to the retrieval stage Modal memory model m was developed by Richard Atkinson and Richard Shiffrin 1) Sensory memory Temporal memory system, that lasts only a fraction of a second. Sensory system changes information into neural impulses George Sperling - carried out experiments that showed visual memory, or sensory memory, only lasted for about 1/3 of a second 2) Short term Memory / working memory Lasts longer than sensory memory, and is also known as the immediate memory Short term memory =RAM in a computer only holds information briefly Lasts only about 20 to 30 seconds unless you retain that information Memory span and chunking memory span is the amount of memories that your short term memory can hold. Usually about 7 items. Chunking is organizing items into meaningful units so that your brain can retain more information 3) Long term Memory Nearly limitless and can last a very long time Allows you to remember things such as nursery rhymes 2 ways that LTM is distguished from STM and WM: Duration and capacity There are also Filtering rules for what gets stored in your LTM Only information that will help us adapt to our environment will be retained in long term memory ( For the most part) Working Memories 4 Parts Working memory consists of 4 parts : Central executive, Phonological loop, visuospatial sketchpad, episodic buffer 1)Central executive Presides over interactions among the phonological loop, the visual sketchpad, episodic buffer, and LTM ; it is the control system 2) Phonological Loop Encodes auditory information and is active whenever a person tried to remember words by reading them, speaking them, or repeating them. 3) Visuospatial Sketchpad Processes visual information, such as the features of an object and where they are located 3) Episodic buffer Holds temporary information about oneself, drawing heavily on LTM episodic memory Differences In LTM systems Memory involves several systems which interact with each other Explicit memory remembering specific information Episodic memory experience memory Semantic memory memory of facts H.M. Study episodic & semantic memory are separate, as people with brain injuries can have a intact semantic memory but an impaired episodic memory Implicit memory consist of memories without awareness of them, so you cant put memories in your own words Classical conditioning employs implicit memory Implicit memory influences our lives in subtle ways False Fame Affect implicit memory can cause people to assume familiar names with famous people Procedural memories have automatic, unconscious aspects Prospective memory involves controlled and unconscious aspects
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