Lecture 7 - Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test - November 8.docx

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Kristie Dukewich

November 8, 2012. Lecture 7 - Introduction to Hypothesis Testing Using the Sign Test Interpreting Binomial Distribution  The probability of something is never zero but rather lowest possible probability will always be <0.0001  Using the table o If we let P represent students and Q represent non-students o p(P) = .75 but that is not listed on the table o so therefore find p(Q) which = .25 What is a sampling distribution?  Matched to a statistic o E.g. sum of, mean, correlation, etc.  All possible values a statistic can take  Probability of getting each value if only chance is operating  Some outcomes are more likely to happen just by chance alone  In our study, we want to rule out chance… we want to find something real.  Binomial distribution is modeling chance to fact. The Sign Test: Using the Binomial Distribution to Calculate  Summarizing and filtering out chance allows to draw broader conclusions about hypotheses  Ruling out chance o Design a study to test a hypothesis o Gather data o Analyze data with appropriate test o Draw conclusions about hypothesis  Gathering Data o Step 1:  Each participant comes in casual clothes  Basic trivia test (0-12) o Step 2:  Come in business attire  Basic trivia test (0-12)  Step one and two are counterbalanced to make sure order doesn’t matter  Tests are designed to be equally hard (standardized)  Repeated Measures Design o Paired scores in the conditions, difference between paired scores are analyzed o Research question: Does wearing authoritative clothing improve test performance? o Casual clothing vs. business attire For Every Study, Two Hypotheses  Null Hypothesis o H 0r “H naught” o NO eff
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