PSY210 Ch.13 Sex and Gender.docx

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Justin Mc Neil

PSY210 Ch.13 Sex and Gender 12/16/2012 8:31:00 AM - 1. Gender stereotypes and gender roles 2. Influences on gender stereotyping and gender-role adoption 3. Gender identity 4. Girls vs. boys in gender stereotyped attributes 5. Developing non-gender stereotyped children Gender stereotypes: widely held beliefs about characteristics deemed appropriate for males and females Gender roles: the reflection of these stereotypes in everyday behaviour Gender identity: is the private face of gender, refers to perception of self as relatively F or M characteristics Gender typing: refers to any association of objects/activities/roles/traits with biological sex in ways that conform to cultural stereotypes of gender  Biological, cognitive + social factors are all involved. 1. Gender stereotypes and gender roles: instrumental-expressive dichotomy  Instrumental traits: reflecting competence, rationality and assertiveness were regarded as masculine o Expressed as high status, favorable occupations, diverse opportunities  Expressive traits: emphasizing warmth, caring, sensitivity seen as feminine. o Opposite.  Gender stereotyping in early childhood o Things in daily life are categorized by kids as M or F early on o Seen inflexibly “boys cant like butterflies!”  Difficulty of infants to coordinate conflicting info  They don’t realize that characteristics associated with ones sex do not determine whether one is F or M.  Gender stereotyping in middle childhood/teens (age 5+) o Realize traits are associated not defining features of a persons gender.  More flexible beliefs o Personality traits  Ingroup favourtism = trait stereotyping of own group, +ve  Outgroup = less well known, -ve o Achievement areas  School subjects divided into F or M genders  These stereotypes influence children’s preferences for and sense of competence in certain subjects.  Stereotype threat  Girls think boys to be smarter despite getting better grades in middle school. o Greater flexibility:  Gender-stereotype flexibility: overlap in the characteristics of M and Fs.  More capacity to integrate conflicting social cues – what a M/F can do  More than just gender predicts peoples beliefs/actions  View outcomes as socially > biologically influenced. More social pressure on boys to conform to gender stereotypes.  Individual and group differences o Boys more rigid with stereotype views always o Higher SES families = more flexible gender views  Gender role adoption o Boys conform more to their gender role = stronger stereotyping o Stereotype flexibility (not knowledge) determines how a child adopts gender roles in middle childhood.  Kids who think that stereotypes are appropriate for both sexes are more likely to cross gender lines in their own choices.  Gender stereotypes affect behaviour only when kid incorporates those beliefs into their own gender identities – self-perceptions of what they can/cant do. 2. Influences on gender stereotyping and gender-role adoption  Biologic influences on gender typing – evolutionary theories o How much cross cultural similarity exists in gender typing?  Experience and social promotion of gender stereotypes which build upon M as instrumental and F as expressive can profoundly influence gender typing o Sex hormones and gender typing  Play styles and preference for same sex partners  M – androgens – active play, aggression, competitiveness, suppress maternal caregiving  Preference of both M and F for same-sex peers.  Early on – hormones affect motivations and actions – of play  Preschool – girls prefer quieter activities, cooperative roles. Boys – larger groups, active.  Gender segregation = social pressures for gender appropriate play + gender stereotyping cognitive factors + ingroup favoritism + hormones too  Exceptional sexual development  Congenital adrenal hyperplasia (CAH) = a disorder, genetic defect causes adrenal system to produce too many androgens from the prenatal period onwards.  Girls with CAH are usually born with masculinized external genitals. = Hormone imbalance  They are more active, like boys toys more, prefer boys as play mates, more interested in masculine careers  Ambiguous genitals = raised as members of the other sex = sexual identity is consistent with gender rearing regardless of genetic sex.  Case of David  Sex hormones influence gender typing  Activity level + preferences for gender appropriate toys/play/careers  The case for environment (not genetics/bio!) o Perceptions + expectations of adults  Differ for girls compared to boys = they are treated and socialized differently  Negative view of cross-gender behaviour o Treatment by parents  Infancy + early childhood  Different environments created for girls/boys  Reinforcement of attitudes (independence in boys), dependency with girls.  Mothers label emotions when talking to girls (perspective taking), but explain emotions to boys (causes/consequences)  Language = powerful, indirect means for teaching children about gender  Parents encourage different types of play in boys/girls.  Middle childhood + teens  More help with school is given to girls by parents, as boys are taught to be more independent  Boys helped in a more mastery-oriented fashion = higher standards, more complex instructional language used by fathers to boys.  More scientific explanations given to boys than girls  Mothers gender-typed judgments affect child’s self-perception of their ability for math  then the effort they put in, and eventual performance.  Parental control: boys “when will do your h.w?”, girls “do your h.w after dinner”.  Greater freedoms to boys.  Gender-countercultural homes = boys more emotionally sensitive, girls more self-confident.  Mothers vs. Fathers  Fathers discriminate most  Parent spends more time with child of their own sex  Gender role training via modeling o Treatment by teachers  Feminine behaviour is emphasized in school classrooms  Value obedience, discourage assertiveness – feminine bias = discomfort for school boys, girls conform.  Teachers labeling gender characteristics “boys be more quiet like the girls” = promotes gender stereotyping and out-group prejudice in kids.  Teachers must praise all kids for independence, persistence, ignore attention seeking and dependency. = schools effort in modifying gender typing o Observational learning  Occupations, TV, male heroines reinforce gender roles  Working mothers = girls with higher career aspirations o Peers  Gender role learning in gender-segregated peer groups  Boys – most intolerant of cross gender play in
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