PSY210 Ch.14 Family.docx

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University of Toronto St. George
Justin Mc Neil

PSY210 Ch.14 Family 12/16/2012 8:21:00 PM - 1. Evolutionary origins 2. Functions of the family 3. Family as a social system 4. Socialization within the family 5. Family lifestyles and transitions 6. Vulnerable families: child abuse 1. Evolutionary origins  Family due to bipedularism o More ability to hold things = sharing  Survival increased via care of the family 2. Functions of the family  Family provides the following services for society: o Reproduction o Economic services o Social order o Socialization o Emotional support  More complex society = these services are taken on by other institutions o Political and legal institutions for social order  Family still now provide reproduction, socialization and emotional support  Social systems perspective – viewing the family as a complex set of interacting relationships influenced by the larger social context. 3. The family as a social system  Bronfenbrenner’s ecological systems theory  very similar to social systems perspective  Bidirectional influences exist between parents + children o Family members mutually influence one another.  Direct influences of family systems: o  Firm + warm parenting = better for discipline. When kids cooperate = better parental response in future o  Harsh + impatient parenting = rebellious children = more punishment from parents o Behaviour of one family member helps sustain a form of interaction in another that either promotes or undermines children’s well being.  Indirect influences: o Interaction between 2 family members is impacted by others in the setting  Third parties  How a range of relationships modify the child’s direct experience in the family  Third parties – can be supportive or undermine the child’s development o E.g. Parents marital relationship…   Warm + considerate = parents praise and stimulate their children more, and nag/scold them less.   Marriage tense + hostile = parents less responsive to child’s needs, criticize them, show anger and punish more.  Children = disrupted emotional security + disrupted emotional self-regulation.  Internalization of difficulties  Adapting to change o Bronfenbrenner’s chronosystem o Forces within the family is dynamic and ever changing o E.g. children acquire new skills, parents adjust the way they treat their more competent kids. o E.g. parents development – mild increase in child-parent conflict in teens is not only due to teenagers striving for independence. Often when parents have reached middle age – conscious that their kids will soon leave home = reconsidering their own commitments  Parent wants = more togetherness  Teen wants = more autonomy  = imbalance = friction  The family system in context o Bronfenbrenner’s mesosystem and exosystem o Connections to the neighbourhood and larger community  Formal organizations (school, work, religious inst.)  Informal social networks (relatives, friends, neighbours) o Link between family & community =  Parental interpersonal acceptance: a neighbor/relative who listens and tries to relieve a parents concern enhances her self-esteem = parents become more involved and sensitive towards child.  Parental access to valuable information & services  Child rearing controls and role models  Direct assistance with child rearing 4. Socialization within the family  Styles of child rearing o Combinations of parenting behaviours that occur over a wide range of situations, creating an enduring child-rearing climate. o Most effective parenting:  Acceptance of the child + involvement in their life = emotional connection with child  Control of the child to promote mature behaviour  Autonomy granting to encourage self-reliance  1. Authoritative child rearing  o The most successful approach – involves high acceptance + involvement + adaptive control techniques + appropriate autonomy granting. o Have appropriate expectations for child = and give reasons for expectations o Promote self-regulation o Monitor child’s whereabouts and activities o Communication high  Child = upbeat, happy, self-control, persistence, cooperative, high self-esteem, responsiveness to parents views, social and moral mature, good school performance.  2. Authoritarian child rearing o Low in acceptance and involvement + Low in autonomy granting + High in coercive control o Cold, rejecting – degrade their child often o Controlling o Force, punishment o Expect child not to question their demands/authority  Child = anxious, sad, low in self-esteem + self-reliance, hostile, resort to fore too, dependence, poor school performance – but because of parents being so controlling  they achieve better and commit fewer antisocial acts than peers with undemanding parents st o Parents needs = 1  Childs self-expression and independence are suppressed o Psychological control = behaviours that intrude on and manipulate children’s verbal expressions, individuality, and attachments to parents.  Love withdrawal, criticism of childs choices, excessively high expectations.  3. Permissive child rearing  o Warm + accepting + uninvolved + overindulgent/inattentive + un-controlling + too much autonomy too soon o Unclear expectations, little punishment  Child = Impulsive, disobedient, rebellious, demanding, dependent, less persistence, poorer school achievement,  Poor self-control  4. Uninvolved child rearing  o Low acceptance + low involvement + little control + indifferent with autonomy issues o Emotionally detached, depressed, overwhelmed = no time/energy for kids o No long term goals for child = form of child maltreatment = neglect o Little social support, poverty  Child = disruptions in attachment, cognition, play, emotional and social skills, poor emotional self- regulation, poor school achievement, antisocial behaviour  What makes the authoritative style effective? o Children’s characteristics contribute as well as parenting style = the ease to which parents can apply authoritative style  Fearless + impulsive + emotionally negative kids = need extra warmth and firm control o Authoritative style promotes maturity in children and adjustment  Different temperaments of child = different doses of certain authoritative features o More parents know about child’s whereabouts and activities = decline in teenage delinquency o Authoritative parents creates a positive emotional context for parental influence via:  Child more likely to comply + internalize control that appears fair + reasonable  Warm + involved parents secure in their standards for kids = model care, confidence, self-control, emotional regulation, social understanding  Warmth + rational reasonable control = effective reinforcement  Demands which engage in autonomy granting that fits with child’s ability = fosters self-esteem of child and cognitive social maturity  Supportive parental acceptance, involvement, rational control = protect child from negative effects of family stress + poverty  Adapting child rearing to children’s development o Parenting in middle childhood: coregulation  Less time spent with children  Gradually shift more responsibilities and independence onto child  Coregulation: a form of supervision in which parents exercise general oversight while permitting children to be in charge of moment-by-moment decision making  Coregulation grows out of cooperative relationship between parent and child – based on give & take, and mutual respect  Clear expectations given by parents o Parenting in adolescence: fostering autonomy  Autonomy: a sense of oneself as a separate, self- governing individual  Emotional component – relying more on oneself and less on parents for support/guidance  Behavioural component – making decisions independently (own judgment vs. suggestion of others)  Autonomy + quest for teen identity  Puberty + Cognitive development  maturity, independence  Children de-idealize their parents  Conflict of desires middle age parents vs. teens = tension  Socioeconomic and ethnic variations in child rearing o SES  Education years + status + income  Linked to child rearing values + expectations  Low SES = external desires for kids = obedience, politeness, neatness, cleanliness  High SES = internal desires = curiosity, happiness, self-direction, cognitive and social maturity  Fathers more involved than low SES fathers  Greater education + security of high SES parents = encourage kids to think more abstractly with more complex language used by parents, more energy and time and resources to nurture kids with  Children are taught to be more autonomous and persuasive of their views as their parents get to be at work.  Low SES = less security, sense of powerlessness,  lack of influence in relationships (due to obeying bosses rules)  parent-child interaction duplicates this. Teach children to obey as they do. o Affluence  More substance abuse by rich kids  More anxiety and depression  Why?  Excessive achievement pressures – competitive parents  Isolation from adults = less parental closeness, teenagers with overscheduled lives o Poverty  Non stimulating environments  Nutritional deficits – obesity, unscheduled  Low energy levels of parents working long hours/depressed = less involvement with kids  Family stress  Financial strain  Little support from family
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