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Jennifer Fortune

Chapter 9: Stereotypes, Prejudice, and Discrimination Definitions  Prejudice- negative attitude toward members  Discrimination- unjustified negative or harmful action / behavior toward members of a group  Stereotype- a generalization about a group of people in which identical characteristics are assigned virtually to all members of a group regardless of actual variation among members o Belief that members of a group share a particular attribute Prejudice and Discrimination Today  Blatant racism has been on the decline o Racism today is illegal in the U.S.  Aversive racism has replaced it o less  overt  than  “old  fashioned”  racism o ambivalent, conflicted feelings about race o less appearance of being racist, but racism still evident under certain conditions  measures of implicit attitudes play a role here  people  don’t  think  that  they  are  prejudiced Stereotypes  Stereotypes are a kind of schema o As such, they speed information processing  However, stereotypes may progress so far beyond the available information as to become harmful o Speeding processing is one thing; shaping and maintaining inaccurate attitudes is quite another Stereotypes- The Costs  Oversimplification o Stereotypes assume too much uniformity and sameness among a group  Negativity o Stereotypes are unduly unfavorable in their tone towards groups  Distortion of Information o Stereotypes guide attention  We distort information in ways that confirm our expectations o Stereotypes guide interpretation  Ambiguous actions will be interpreted in ways that conform to the stereotype Vicious Cycle of Stereotypes  Self-fulfilling prophecy o Perceiver’s  expectancy  about  a  target  influences  the  perceiver’s  behavior  towards   that target o The  perceiver’s  behavior  elicits  the  expected  behavior  from  the  target  Stereotype Threat o Apprehension experienced by members of a minority group that their behavior might confirm a cultural stereotype Disagreeing with Stereotypes  What  happens  if  we  know  a  stereotypes  but  don’t  personally  endorse  it? o subliminal priming demonstrates that behavior can be activated indirectly through knowledge of a stereotype  Implicit intergroup bias o stereotypes  can  automatically  influence  judgments  without  the  perceiver’s   awareness Emotional Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination  Frustration and prejudice o Scapegoat theory- prejudice occurs because members of a dominant group discriminate against members of a weaker group as a way of venting their frustration  Perceived competition for resources o Realistic group conflict theory o Groups believe that they are competing with each other for scarce resources o Prejudice and discrimination occurs because they must fight for resources o Ex: robbers cave study o Ex: immigrants taking jobs  Self-enhancement motivation o Discriminate against others to make ourselves feel better o Social identity theory  Huge part of identity comes from being in groups  Want to be in groups that we feel are positive so that we have a positive self-identity  When we feel that our group is better, we have high self-esteem  A unifying model o Integrated threat theory  Fear plays a huge role in discriminatory behavior  Negative / prejudices arise when we are presented with threats 1. Realistic threats 2. Symbolic threat  Perceived  threat  to  group’s  beliefs  /  values 3. Anxiety-based threat  Uncomfortable feeling from interacting with an outgroup 4. Negative stereotype based Cognitive Sources of Prejudice and Discrimination  Social Cognition o Social Categorization (US vs. Them) o In group bias and Out group homogeneity o Implicit Attitudes (automatic Vs. Controlled processes) o Illusionary correlations- make  relationships  exist  that  aren’t  really  there Sexism: Prejudice and Discrimination Against Women  Like  racism,  modern  sexism  has  ch
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