PSY230 text goals.docx

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Maja Djikic

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PSY230: Engler text: Goals by Chapter (The quotes are from the text.) Chapter 2 (Freud): 1. Freud used the talking method developed by Joseph Breuer. As a result of this practice, he developed his own methods of free association and other techniques. At first, they worked together but separated due to Breuer’s rejection of “Freud’s emphasis on the role of sexuality in neurosis.” Foreshadowing? Regarding unconscious processes, Freud found that encouraging his patients to remember traumatic events was a long process, so he concluded that some sort of unconscious inner resistance prevented that recall. Unconscious means “unable to be verbalized.” 2. Traumatic events evoked strong emotions that often cannot be expressed in a normal way “because of the circumstances surrounding the event.” The repressed emotions are expressed through neurotic events such as ________. He referred to repressed ideas or thoughts (arising through traumatic events) as wishes that went against the person’s ego-ideal, causing pain due to that incompatibility. 3. To free associate: “verbalize whatever comes to mind, no matter how insignificant, trivial or even unpleasant the idea, thought or picture may seem.” It is based on the premise that “no idea is arbitrary [or] insignificant.” 4. Slips and dreams: like the thoughts that come from free association, slips are also not without meaning. The person who slips is subconsciously expressing a personal motive through the slip, though the slip may also be caused by physical tiredness. To analyze a slip, one would use free association to analyze the chain of associations made by the patient between thoughts related to the event; note that the premise of free association must be observed. Regarding dreams, Freud saw them as the expression of unsatisfied wishes, those “unacceptable to the self-concept”, or ego-ideal. The wishes and motives are contained in the “latent dream”, as opposed to the “manifest dream,” which is the dream as recalled. To analyze the dream (“dream work”), Freud used symbols, which may be personal or shared (foreshadowing Jung?) to interpret the results of free association. 5. “According to Freud, the nature of our repressed wishes and desires is erotic.” What does he mean by that and what is his definition of sexuality? He saw a sexual desire like homeostasis (my interpretation): a desire to seek balance; basically, to scratch an itch. Over time, he emphasized the emotional and psychic component of this drive as libido. To him. “drive” is “a psychological or mental representation of an inner bodily source of excitement.” In contrast to Descartes, Freud saw mind and body as a unity: drive contains the energy of both mind and body. A drive has source, impetus, aim and object. Eros represents life-affirming drives, but Thanatos represents death-affirming drives … basically. Note the polarity. He redefined sexuality by removing the influence of genitals and reproductive activity and enlarged it to “include activities such as thumb sucking and sublimation, that were not previously thought to be sexual.” (It seems to me that those who rejected Freud’s emphasis on sexuality did not seem to understand his use of the word.) 6. Childhood: 7. Psychosexual stages: a. Oral b. Anal c. Phallic (Oedipus Complex shows up here) d. Latency e. Genital 8. Id/ego/superego: id operates according to pleasure principle and drives us using primary processes. Superego strives for perfection, is conscience and ego-ideal. Ego moderates between the two, following the reality principle, using secondary processes. 9. In maladjusted personalities: the id and/or superego gains control over the moderating ego. 10.Id/Ego/Superego in conscious/unconscious processes: “No easy correlation”. The three may or may not have un/conscious components. 11.Three forms of anxiety: a. Reality b. Neurotic c. Moral 12.Defense mechanisms: a. Repression (the umbrella terms for the rest of them) b. Denial (“No, I’m fine. What abuse?”) c. Projection ( d. Reaction formation (“I love it when he hits me.”) e. Regression (eating Haagen-Dazs) f. Rationalization (“Why tell the family I misdiagnosed? The patient was going to die anyway.”) g. Identification (This is modeling behavior on someone we like, who treats us well, who treats us badly. Same-sex or not.) h. Displacement (After a bad day, you come home and kick the dog.) i. Sublimation (turning a bad childhood into a novel) 13.Psychoanalysis: the therapy privileges transference, where the patient is allowed to regress and experience past traumas by feeling the same way toward the therapist as he/she did toward significant persons in the past. Once re-experienced in a therapeutic environment, the feelings can be examined and reworked to produce a more satisfactory resolution for the patient. 14.Efforts to test Freudian concepts: Much of the processes involved are internal. “It is difficult to translate many of his concepts into operational procedures that allow for an unequivocal test. “ Results are mixed. Note that _______________ preferred to study processes that can be observed in human interactions. 15.Philosophy/science/art: mostly philosophy, probably because many of its precepts cannot be determined empirically? Chapter 3 (Jung): 1. How he used “psyche:” it refers to all psychological processes: conscious and subconscious. 2. How is his concept of libido different? This is what I don’t get. Jung thought of libido as a general psychic energy driving a person forward. But if Freud redefined sexuality as being more general, aren’t they talking about the same thing? Okay. Freud placed it more in the id, which has a more physical component, and those desires may conflict with the superego. So we may have three definitions for libido: a. Narrowly defined as the desire to have sex b. More broadly defined as a set of physical desires (Freud) c. Even more broadly defined as a set of motivations, “undifferentiated energy that moves the person forward” (Jung). 3. Jung ego vs, Freud ego: Freud thought that the ego moderated between id and superego and executed the actions of the personality. Jung thought that ego is one’s conscious perception of self. 4. Attitudes and functions (one attitude, one function is dominant): a. Introversion (attitude) b. Extroversion (attitude) c. Thinking d. Sensing e. intuition f. Feeling 5. Personal unconscious contains forgotten/repressed experiences. These are organized into complexes around a central idea, e.g. mother, home … 6. Collective unconscious relative to Freud: “potential ways of being that all humans share.” Freud thought unconscious was just personal. Note the conceptual spreading outwards from a central, internal, personal paradigm. 7. Archetypes and active imagination: thoughts from the universal unconscious take shape as archetypes. They are also ways that we are predisposed to see the world. We get in touch with these through active imagination. Examples: a. Persona vs. shadow b. Anima vs. animus c. Self: “the central archetype and true midpoint of the personality”. Note that midpoint implies balance. 8. Self-realization is goal-oriented, end-oriented: teleological. The patient achieves individuation, where “the systems of the individual psyche achieve their fullest degree of differentiation, expression and development” and transcendance, the “integration of the diverse systems of the self towards the goal of wholeness and identity with all of humanity.” Synchronicity refers to simultaneous events that also hold meaning for a person (example: dreaming of a friend who dies the next day), and these events are linked by the universal subconscious, aware of an event before it emerges into the conscious. Once the patient connects the two (inner and outer experiences), he/she may overcome resistance to therapy. “Jung’s thinking foreshadowed the quest today for spirituality,” “the search for meaning or for a power beyond the self.” This is a general spirit, not adhering to the tenets of one religion. 9. Features of Jungian psychotherapy: Jung sought to restore (create?) balance within the patient, or “reconcile the contradictory aspects of personality.” The procedure is a dialogue between therapist and patient, where the therapist is not as detached as in Freudian therapy. Confession is necessary, but it is only useful in the presence
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