Study Guides (238,157)
Canada (114,959)
Psychology (683)
PSY230H1 (22)

Second Midterm Notes

12 Pages
Unlock Document

University of Toronto St. George
Dan Dolderman

Behaviourism Reaction from idea of unconsciousness; anything not observable, does not exist Assumptions: o Knowledge that does not come from direct public observation is invalid o Introspection is invalid because no one can verify someones introspection o Personality is a sum total of ones environment (rewards and punishments contained in physical and social world) Environment induces behaviour which represents learning (any change of behaviour as a function of ones experience with environment) it is the only and ultimate cause of behaviour Philosophical roots: o Empiricism: everything we know comes from our experience; Locke environment imprints on you o Associationism: claim that two things, or two ideas, or thing and an idea, become mentally associated together if they are repeatedly experienced as close together in time The whole is exactly the sum of its parts o Gestalt psychology: the whole is different from the sum of its parts Our perceptions of the world are not built merely from the pieces we perceive, the mind imposes on complicated stimuli a general form that has meaning different from its parts o Reductionism: conceptualism of knowledge as including simple associations between small facts Understanding a large phenomenon by breaking it down into small constituent parts Personality consists of persons inventory of learned associations, or even physiological mechanisms, that can be considered separately o Hedonism: People learn in order to seek pleasure and avoid pain reason why rewards and punishments shape behaviour Epicurus: purpose of life to be free of pain and to pursue aesthetic enjoyment and peace of mind Led to utilitarianism: the best society is the arrangement that crease the most happiness for the largest number of people o Problem? The majority could strip minoritys rights and happiness Sadness is a signalling mechanism and without it, instead of allowing info, it twists your emotional system Pavlov: natural or spontaneous responses cold be made conditional upon the appearance of an unnatural stimulus o Classical conditioning: Unconditioned stimulus meat powder Unconditioned response salivation Conditioned stimulus belllight Conditioned response salivation o Associationism: stimuli experienced together (connected) Unconditioned stimuli must be experienced just before the conditioned stimuli A mechanism through which the meaning of one concept changes the meaning of another (i.e. bell) o Instrumental (an animals behaviour is a contributing factor in the sequence of conditioning) conditioning: Pavlovs associates change procedure: flex dogs leg meat powder After a few tries dog flex leg without experimenter inducing it dog automatically anticipates the reward to follow leg flexion thus ensuring that reward would come about FOCUSED ON measure of conditioning success: size of response (i.e. amount of saliva) or rapidity of response is made (e.g. how quickly salivation begins following stimulus) Edward Thorndike: hungry cat escape puzzle box specific responses strengthened (decreased time taken) through pairing with pleasant outcomes Watson: father of behaviourism o Behaviourism is a diametric opposite of awareness in psychology; however, behaviourism relied too much on animals and while animals always reach for the cookie, humans dont always take it. Human behaviourism cant be based solely on animal data. o Stimulus response psychology o Limited himself to observables, erasing distinction between higher (humans) and lower animals o Made a distinction between external response and internal response, suggesting that what we consider thought (mentation) is actually a form of subvocal speech in which we covertly manipulate the muscles of our speech apparatus and related structures o Considered it the scientific duty of psychology to establish laws and principles for the control of human action o Personality is the end product of our habit systems o By controlling the environment, you can control people SKINNER: o Obsessed with environmental control Skinner crib; daughter o Found S-R model inappropriate for psychology o Concentrated on overt behaviour because it could be completely comprehended in terms of responses to factors in the environment; trying to explain things internally is fiction because these structures cannot be directly observed cant be measured systematically or empirically. o Respondent behaviour: reflexes or automatic responses that are elicited by stimuli can be conditioned or changed through learning (i.e. dog learning to salivate) come to be performed in the presence of the previously neutral stimulus through the process of association o Focused on instrumental (operant) conditioning involves reinforcing and shaping spontaneous responses. Rather than being elicited, most behavioural responses are actually emitted or sent forth by the organism in relation to consequent environmental factors which either reinforce the behaviour emitted or fail to do so. VS. classical conditioning: nature of the behaviour which is freely made rather than elicited by a stimulus and in the nature of the reinforcement, which follows rather than precedes the behaviour Operant response: behaviour that operates on the environment to produce a reinforcing effect Focuses on the response and asserts that responses followed by reinforcers are likely to be carried out again, and the more we reinforce these responses (operants) the more likely will they be to appear FOCUSED ON measure of learning: frequency of conditioned responses Reinforcement: whatever is empirically seen to increase the frequency of behaviour Both positive and negative reinforcement means behaviour increases!
More Less

Related notes for PSY230H1

Log In


Don't have an account?

Join OneClass

Access over 10 million pages of study
documents for 1.3 million courses.

Sign up

Join to view


By registering, I agree to the Terms and Privacy Policies
Already have an account?
Just a few more details

So we can recommend you notes for your school.

Reset Password

Please enter below the email address you registered with and we will send you a link to reset your password.

Add your courses

Get notes from the top students in your class.