Complete Brain Anatomy

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Department
Psychology
Course
PSY260H1
Professor
Martin Ralph
Semester
Winter

Description
Brain AnatomyThorasic ganglia This is a portion of the sympathetic trunk which typically includes 12of these regions Emerging from here are thoracic splanchnic nerves thecardiopulmonary the greater lesser and least splanchnic nerves that help provide sympathetic innervation to abdominal structures Also these regions of the thoracic sympathetic trunk have both white and gray rami communicantes The white rami carry sympathetic fibers arising in the spinal cord into the sympathetic trunkand the Dorsal Striatum this is a compound structure consisting of the caudate nucleuslentiform nucleus which consists of the putamen and the globus pallidus It is composed of the external capsule white matter the lentiform nucleus gray matter the internal capsule white matter and the caudate nucleus gray matter The alternating white and gray matter gives it a striated appearance It contributes directly to decisionmaking especially to action selection and initiation through the integration of sensorimotor cognitive and motivationalemotional information within specific corticostriatal circuits involving discrete regions in this area It is a part of the different aspects of motivational and learning processes that support goaldirected action For instance dopamine release here when participants are presented with potential rewards such as the opportunity to gain money or even when presented with food stimuli while in a state of hunger Increases in blood oxygenation level occur here during the anticipation of either primary or secondary rewards much like the ventral striatumLateral hypothalamus This area is concerned with hunger Damage to this area can cause reduced food intake while stimulating this area causes a desire to eat Stimulating the ventromedial region of this area causes a desire to stop eatingCingulate gurys This area coordinates sensory input with Emotions controls emotional responses to pain and regulates aggressive behaviour It is a fold or bump in the brain and is located superior to the corpus callosum between the cingulate sulcus and the sulcus groove or indentation of the corpus callosum It also appears to connect the intellectual part of the brain with the emotional responding park of the brain Thalamus this area is situated between the cerebral cortex and midbrain both in terms of location and neurological connections Its function includes relaying sensation spatial sense and motor signals to the cerebral cortex along with the regulation of consciousness sleep and alertness It surrounds the third ventricle and is the main product of the embryonic diencephalon It is generally believed to act as a relay between a variety of subcortical areas and the cerebral cortex In particular every sensory system with the exception of the olfactory system includes a nucleus of this area that receives sensory signals and sends them to the associated primary cortical area In the visual system for example inputs from the retina are sent to the lateral geniculate nucleus of this area which in turn projects to the primary visual cortex area V1 in the occipital lobe This area is believed to both process sensory information as well as play a role in relaying it It also plays an important role in regulating states of sleep and wakefulness Nuclei here have strong reciprocal connections with the cerebral cortex forming circuits that are believed to be involved with consciousness It plays a major role in regulating arousal the level of awareness and activity Damage here can lead to permanent comaMany different functions are linked to various regions of this area This is the case for many of the sensory systems except for the olfactory system such as the auditory somatic visceral gustatory and visual systems where localized lesions provoke specific sensory deficits A major role of the area is devoted to motor systems Medial dorsal nucleus of the thalamus this is large nucleus in the thalamus that is believed to play a role in memory It receives inputs from the prefrontal cortex and the limbic system and in turn relays them to the PreFrontal Association Cortex As a result it plays a crucial role in attention planning organization abstract thinking multitasking and active memorySupramarginal gyrus this area is a portion of the parietal lobe and is also a part of the BA39 Brodmann area 39 It integrates kinesthetic memories with auditory commands and seems to be involved in phonological and articulatory processing of words Angular gyrus This area is a portion of the parietal lobe and is dorsal to the supramarginal gyrus it is also a part of the BA39 Brodmann area 39 It seems to be involved in semantic processing The right version of this area appears to be active as well as the left thus revealing that the right hemisphere also contributes to semantic processing of language Brodmann area 39 plays a role in semantic aphasia Brodmann area 22 plays a role in sensory aphasia Brodmann area 44 and Brodmann area 45 plays a role in motor aphasia Fornix this is a Cshaped bundle of fibers axons in the brain that carries signals from the hippocampus to the mammillary bodies and septal nucleiSupplementary premotor cortex this is the part of the brain involved in the perception of time If you pay attention to time during a task your estimation of time is that it is just long It also provides us with a memory of how long things take An interesting feature of this system is that if we pay attention to time time will drag on If we have something to do in that time our perception of time will shrink
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