PSY270 JUNE 12.docx

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Christine Burton

PSY270 JUNE 12, 2012 LANGUAGE PSYCH LOUNGE WEDNSEDASY MORNING FROM LAST WEEK WHAT IS LANGUAGE DIFFERENT LEVELS WORDS SENTENCES AND TEXTS AND STORIES MODUAL VS DOMAIN – MODULARITY TO TALK ABOUT LANGUAGE BU TD – PERCIEVE LANGUAGE DECODE THE SOUND AND GET MESSAGE OR MESSAGE RECEIVE INFLINCED BY PAST KNOWLEDEG Network models - Heiracrhacl already discussed - Every node up and down - Longer if answer moving between levels - Problem most time ling time to travel not always true chicken animal two levels faster then one level is bird - Cant have hericarch org Contd - Spreading activation - No hericarch avoides it problem one faster - Present in environment node becomes active fire engine active and all stored becomes active - Activity then spreads out to other nodes - The length of link determines strength of connection – means activity spread faster 0 faster ambulance if saw fire truck then house - What determeines strength of connections or length is exeprince so top down porcessss, so hear think or know in addition of ambulance and fire truck - What this means is that everyone one has different knowldeg representation - Problem is that everything is possible, within one it changes it is nice and explain every cvategroizeation and is problem if explains everything without explaining anything - Activiation doesn’t stop once, one node out in all direction and keeps spreading, weakens as it goes another problem at some point it has to stop does not specify when , one thing activate all rest of knowledge - Not call this spreading activation model, talks in refercen to heriarchal model - This is semtnatic network model as the hericactcal one, this is spreading activiation - The other move between link, not an atomatic spread, active search is the heiracrchal effect is same, mind is just searching in the heactchal - The sreading mind is not actively looking like the other one - Explains different but not why different, not quite there Parallele distributed processing - Newer - Not based on how categories are organized but structrure of the brain - Not nodes but neuron like unuts - Differecen between semantic – the units do no contain info theses ones don’t semantic do - Units connected with links, amount iof connectivity - Others directly trlated, every unit is connected with every other one - Look hierarchal but it aint - What contain layer of unites - Input – recvieve info - One layer – hidden where processing happens unknown - And output ayer, comes in processed and goes out - Like neurons can be one of 3 active ex and inh - Important each connectioin links has different weight coneection strength - Like length in spreading – higher weight is stronger connection from 0 to 1 – 0 is no 1 is perfect connection this unit is active and other all activity is transferred to other equally active - .5 half as active - How storeed is pattern of activity some active depending on input and weights and hidden layer represent particular catergory or exemplar 0 distributed processing Contd - How system learns is by process called basck propagantion - Computer simulations mimic it like brain - Feed in pic of dog receptors of input take into info to hiddent - Weights at beging are random – so random pattern of activity random output - So this is a tabke – needs to get feedback – no wroung so info fed back from output to hidden and weights are changed - Continues to weighting just so it is a dog so input certain pattern dog Contd - Input – random pattern of activyt in hidden and output Pd - Explains how it easy - Pattern of activation shouldn’t be that different for other dog - Resistant to faulty input - What is it – new mcds even if green arches know yellow – neogh there to knwow aht you are talking about - Demonstaret grasce degradation – something wrong in system models can compensate some info missing, neurons not active in memory trace this model can compensate fot it - Brain damage not everything top working – tot is tip of tongue - Always learn if appropriate feedback - How think not anatomical detail Contd - Generalization of leanting know dog - Certain pattern etc slightly different germand Sheppard shouldn’t be to much of diffent pattern of activation – little diffent output - Faulty input – little bit wrong – slightl different change weightings and get slight difference in activity no diferecne in ouput same activity - Changes weighting is feedback - Most pattern intact not change output - Diftributed pattern more or less intact Language - Form of communication - Set of rules - Regular structuired communication system - Spoken or written, spoken seems to be natural for people learned it easily children can pick up quickly - Written Is human invention – not born to read ot write is system takes advantage of rest of cognitive system- pay attention sounds to written - Rest of cogntion can do to read and write - Studies in cognitive pscy present written passages bc lots go on Hocketts - 6 characterisitcs all language - Most have to be a language all in common - Semanticity – point of language is comuncaiton have to convey meaning - Arbitrariness – knowlde rep as images and words – words symbolic do not resember what represent - Regulary structured – set of rules, order place words, sounds go together , unspoken rules who talks when, rules different between languages - Duality – different units of language can be broken down or build up, sounds make up words, words setnteces and sentecnse make text, heirachal structre - Prod – can create infinite number of utterancrs with finite sounds - Disoplacement – not think about, important allows us to time travel talk about things not currently present imagine things in future an past, and things that may never happen Study at diffent levels - Phono – basic level the sound - Mprh – study of words and parts of words, what makes up and combine units into word - Semantics – meaning - Syntax – level of rules of langueg how combine words in structured way to communicate our intent (rules of grammer not same thing thought) - Pragmatics – how we actually use language to coomnucate every day how we get message across - Stores above it all - Study words first 3 how sound, semantics what hey mena and morp - Sentencecs need semantics and syntax what message coney and rules putting together - Stories – semans meaning, syntax ruls, and pragmatic how we interact to cimm text Phon - Basic unit is phoneme - Smallest unit of sound that makes different to word - No meaning itself - Cat and bat 3 phenmes - Each change word none alone have meaning but can change meaning - Phonems correspond to letter, combination of letters phoneme, more phonems then letters - English 40 to 46 phonemes, vary depending on accent and dialiect not all English same range of sounds Special - Somehow different from other sounds (modualory) pick up phonemens any othr sound - If modular should be doing something diffetnt with phonemes - Evidence suggest yes they are special - Lack of invariance problem is evidence – (we do have vairence) – is variance betweeb speech sounds produce each time it is physically diffetn but not here difference - Quickly phonemes blend together - Coarticulation – exampoke of lack of invariance problem – can catch cola can – lip position is different though same sound – coart – preparing for upcoming sound the ca and the next sound - Lack of invariance within a language - Preape for next word not hear difercne in signal (coarticualted) Contd - Segemtataion proble (if hear them as other sounds phonemes) - Cross time, which frequency on y and time x - Dark band is frewuncey - low and high frewuency - Intensity mark is intensity frequncey - Signal sound and no sound, we hear sound and no sound - The phsycial breaks don’t correspnf breaks u hear in words - Break u hear not coresspnd to breaks in frequncey - Hear pauses not one continuous not one sound up and dowsns , not know breaks corrspnd to words, hear change in signal know languge tells us breaks nothing in acoustic signal Contd - We use vision – intregatrae visuall signal with auditory signal - Kuhl 22m - Here baba then eyes open dada mcgurck effect - Auditory and visual signal intergration - Muted video of gaga and heard baba, u heard average between them heard dada, not happen with non speech sounds, something of if here piano sound trumpet, onl if lip movement match audio - We use vison to help us hear Voicing - Vocal codes vibrate is voiced - If not vibrate then not voice , all vowels are cvoices , some consants voiced some aren’t voiced - So combine both cons and vowels always vibrating - Time they start vibrating different - Ba as soon vocal cord vibrate Cate perception - Vary voice onset time - When vocial cord vibrate only diffecen between ba and pa - Get computer and change v
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