PSY270 JUNE 7.docx

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Christine Burton

PSY270 JUNE 7, 2012 INTRODUCE DEBATE HOW WE REPRESENT KNWOLEDGE TWO OPOSING THEORIES ESSENTIALLY IS BETWEEN IMAGES AND THOUGHTS EVIDENCE SUPORTING ONE OR THE OTHER, SHIFT REGARDLESS HOW ACTUALLY ORGANIZE IT AND HOW ARE RELATED TO EACH OTHER KEY THEMES 1. MENTAL WHAT WE ARE ASKINg everthing store represents something in real worlds 2. 34 3. At the end how organized and connected, one and search through serial way, or parallel network Rep knowledge - One of the earliest debates - How knowledge rep - Agree thoughts are images eaccepted quite sometime till early 19 centuryh - Until francis calton we can think without images, he and friends could think but trouble forming mental images - Visual images, most is visual images, imagery not just visual - Song stuck in head imagery `auditory imagery - Imagery Is opp of symbiolic representation - Imagery rep real world - Image of dog look like a dog - Symbolic no way resembles real world it is arbitrary like word dog - Imagery is analogue code analogues to real word cvds symbols which is symbolic Contd - Two types of codes - Dual code this is how rep thoughts - Two ways to rep thoughts one way of rep images - Think in images in words - What we doing with images is one thing the end, analogue and deicted word same thing Contd - One way rep images as analogue code has a name is code functional equicalence hypotheses - They are analgous and depicted representiation all same thing - Functional equirvalence, depicted, anal, all images same same as real worl - Prop is not think in Images, not functional equicalnce not think in terms of words - Knowledge rep in terms of thoughts - Prop recognizes such things as images, images are epiphenoma, a by product of our thoughts - Example - - laptops processing calculations etc, laptop produces heat from lab top more processing more heat, heat not cause processing it is a by product of it, - Processing going on and get images, not related to thoughts just a by product Contd - Knowldeg - Dual code and peop - Dual code is anal and sumnilic - And anal is functional equci - Dc – images and words all knowledge - Functional equicalnce – only image part of thought – thought is images - Separate it prop theory not any stuff – knowldeg is tougth - Which first prop thoughts then words - Or words and analogues codes thoughts in them selves - Ducal code – think in words and images analgous to real life – resemble real word - Prop – express thoughts we use images and thoughts not thoughts just tools we use - Dual code not tools but way we think Prop theory - A prop is smallest unit of knowldeg tjay can stand as assertion – can verify can say true or false - - I can say I am tall – propostional – not necessary be true but can verify – I am is not a propostional can verify it – smallest unit can recognize as true or false - Anything u can verify – agree or disagree - Nto tied to specific modiality – thoughts disembodied ideas, this prop is just an idea - Image is tied to modiality – visual, audio depends on modality - Thougth 0 use visuon to descripe it – can have thought independelty not have to describe it Contd - Prop have agent and erlation - Agent is thing - And relation is what is happening to thing - Expressed as relation(agent) – not prop how we rep it - The duck is wet – wet (duck) – captures idea – can try to draw it but duck is wet is idea - It is just standard notation – can choose express agent first Functional equic theory - Skip to images and words - One threoy think - If not thinking in prop and going strariugt to images and words analgous representations so images meet certain ctiteria – similar to real world in number of ways - Functionally equivalent in 5 ways - Trans equivalence – images have to obey same physical laws as real world – time walking around table once is fast then twice imagine once less time then twice, or jump don’t go down – just bc not happen in real world like cheetah flying – laws of physics – not two places at once - Spatial – arrangement of elements in images – have to be photo of real world – fire exstinguisher to right turn around to left - Implicit – same info from images and real world – ask you how many cupboards few world know want info go to info and get them – implicit says imagine cupboards and count (kitchen), same info - Structural – construction how we buld and make objects and images – draw pic of house windows trapeery longer then box and triangle same time difference ithen umaging detailed house and draw – process of creting images similar process creating real things - Perc – simailr brain mechanism – - Have to meet all five necessary and suficent to support - Do we have evidence for all 5 Some evidence Metnal rotaion - Trans equivalence - Two experiments - First one is mental rotation – shown images 2 3d shapes wither same or different one has been rotated in space - Top lower degree of rotation - Time takes to answr question Mental rotation - Same result - Sam shape more degree longer reaction - Different same time - Why support (same shape) – real life two objects one rotate it more takes it longer to rotate - Different shape support? – try put same position – different never be in same roatrion – take longer have to go all way long flip it take some time – nto matter raotion play with same amount of time Image scanning - Shown map try to memeorizer - Imagine at beach and when reach wind mill - (beach taken away) image of it - T o windmill and to light house - Light house further - So more time for light house - So evidence for trans equivlance - Depends on instructuin – imagine light coming from it Spatial equicalnce - Imagine rabbit next to elevant - Does rabbit of eyelashes - Does elephant have eyelashes - To see size compare two object - Elepahtn bigger rabbit - Have to stand back to see both - Should see elephant clearly - The rabiit smaller and far can barely make it out - Elephant is fast - Rabbit Is slow - In real life assuming not know have to look have to zoom in to rabit examine it takes tume slower to answer rabit then elapant - What if elephants are really novel? Rule out - With rabbit and fly whiskers - Fast rabbit fly zoom in - What if semantic knowlfe about things know rabbits - Imagine elephant size rabbit and rabit size elephant - Eividence of Implicit - Get knowlge from images same as real objects - Showed drawings all ambigiuous all saw same drawings to groups different titles - Later remember and draw picture - If store image then draw the images not what founf - What drew not picture but title - Nto store images but meaning of it Reed - A star of david image - Member it - Then see shapes and are part of original image - Only 14% got it. Only when resaw it - Evidnce against implicit encoding - Not same info from imagine as shape - Perhaps not stroring image but meaning - Othink of two triangle s - Not storing parralelram with traingels on - Support proporsional - Ask about info of something familiar with in semantic not have to look at it, know corners of square not have to imagine a square Image complexity - Fiivve square in shape of cross - Or two overlapping recatnalge could be wither - When ask to draw 5 in square croos more time then two rectangles - Then imaine what saw and press button – five sqwaure more time then two overlapping - Longer create image - How we create and imagin equivalent Interfercen (perceptual) - If brain mechanism the same fo r imagery and perception then see interference of the two - Not do two at the same time - If imagery and perception same mechanism see sam einterfernce e - Two grouos in imagery one group the tree another sound of piano - While in imagery also doing a vigilance task - Being alert and aware of presence of stimulus - Imagine tree keep eye out for arrow and listening for tone - Imagine sound of piano look arrow and listen for tone - Measured reaction time not detection rate - How long to respond to arrow or sound - Iagine tree hearing sound fast - But slower detrecing thre arrow - Already using up process less resource to detect stimulus interference using same mechanism Neuropscyholoficla evidnce - Eyemovements (behavior technically) - Look at scne look around in certain way - Blank screen and imagine it same eye movements - Same process looking and imaging - Similar brain areas - Measure brain activity similar brain activity when look at scene and imagine a scence - More brain activity with perception then imagery - Evidcnce pati
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