PSY280 JULY 31.docx

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PSY280 JULY 31, 2012 ND SOUND LOCALIZATION 2 AUDITORY AUD LCOI - Many stimuli prodicing and to dicsrimiante is aud localization - And is complete aud space, surornding world that has a location and has auditory worl produces a sound - 3 dimensions - Azimuth is left to right horizontal where they are coming from left to right - Elevation above or below - Distance from person perceiving the sounds - Distance coded by intensity Bi cues - Time is from left to right, dif in time of travel from soundwwve from same location - Time is low frequency - Interaul is intensity for high frequency sounds Itd - Dffernce time sound to reach each ear - In front both ear same time so itd is zero - Off to the side greater itd - Sound box on right then right first and then left later - Time dif left vs right or vice versa - Greater time difference then more off to side the sound stim Itd - The same distance no difference in time - Increase distance to r or left increase greates is 90 straigh to left or right Physiology - Medial superior olive - Another area is inferior colliculus - Itd detectors – narrowly tuned to fine difference between or braodley turned wich one first Contd - Narrowly - Specific tie difeernce also coincidence detectors - Both then signal on both ears - Where meet is neuron number 5 and code 0 itd, coincidence of this neruone by left and right ear and fire when the signal is simulatenous - Right hand side then start one path sooner so closer to left - Left is slower where meeting is number 3, codes for sound from right ofbody - .5 ms based on degree from prev slide Broad - Left hemisphere if right and right hemp if left ear first fire opp sound of body - Propations of left and right hemisphere code Ild - High frequency head barrier - Low freq skips the head distance between the two waves - Under 100 hertz ild not useful - Decrease intensity is acoustic shadow - Intensity by how intense dif points of space Phys - Exist in lateral superior olives - Olives receive contra lateral – both ips and cont - Lso code for ild intensity - Medial s o for itd time - So lateral exc from ips and in from contr - Inhibit to reapeziod - So excited sends out inhibition - So codes for how much left to right - One more firing and ilt Binaural - Problem - Detectors of objects on azimuth - Not elevation - Certain locations high and low same il and it not tell high or lower areas of amibiguity - Same ilt and idp no elevation Mon - Spectral cues bc frequencies - Identify elevation - Spectral cues are dependent on int and freq - Hit pinna funnels into ear or position of head aloow frq to enter canal - And it change in frequency Contd - Sound approaching the ear and it’s the ear changes same frequencies caty in intensity depen where hit the pinnna - Dtf – base on ele and azi produce difference of freq based on where hits - Everyones pinna differs so how auditory system codes for it it is plastic, born not have detector based on body ear head pinna Echolaction - Base depth using sound - See in individual people who are blind use clicks - And bounce off and diff in echo can bounce off - Echolation is occipital lobe as well recruits visual area Lab - Echolactors two patients - Eb 13 monts and lb 13 years boith echo - Controls age match not blind or echo - Sit in room produce clicks and measure clicks and microphone inserted in ear - And played back in scanner, - When heard echoes the blind act visual areas of depth perception so v1 and higher and weren’t activated in healthy controls - Show plasticity - Primitive in vision buut comp using vision Aud scen analysis - Similar to visual scene analysis - Process of grouping spate perceptions as separate - How one is different – discrimation - All the soiinds sources in entire environment - Aud scen analysis relies on cure Asa - Loc - Spectra - Temperal - Contin a - Experience Princ - Location must straight forward - Same location same source - Top is seprate from bottom Spectral - Sounds similar in pitch and timbre same sound source - Rather same sound source then seqment on into high and low Spectral - Scale illusion group of high and low - Artificial - Sim use head phones - Begins high freq and another begins low - Rathr then from left to right - Seq on as high and high tones - And other low freq tones even though inac - Two smooth sequences grup pitch and similarity Proximity - Rapid succession occur together - High and low then two places slow - Fast vs slowly, time difference - Similar timbre and frequency need to - Over 30ms no segration - If tones under 30 ms get segration Contin - Blasts of tones and separated of period of silence then separate tones - If sep with noise not stopping and staring but continuing Experience - Hear song in another car no what it is and group - Mcdermmot - Presented novel target sounds and distractor sounds - Target sounds reoeated - 1 cond on target and change distractor - 2 2 targets and two separate distracters - 2 rep of novel sound become familiar - 2 higher then chance - More 3 4 10 then beter detecting - Red bars target played same time as distractor Speech production - Prd and perc linked - Vocal apartus many sounds - We are most sounds - Lower vocal cords more range of sound - Swallow cant talk - And easier to choke - Lower in trachea - 850 different sounds Contd - 3 components - One respiration - Phonation - Articulation Cont - Resp diaphragm push into lungs oush air into trachea - Trahea windpip - Pink region is respiration area - Pressure trachea to larynx - With larynx vocal cods or vocal folds is formation area - Thickness of cords different - 2 muscles that flap - Women thin greater vibration – 200 pulses per second higher pitch - Men thicker vibrate to less – - Children higher bc more t
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