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University of Toronto St. George
Junchul Kim

Lecture 1 Behavior: result of nervous system activity Behavior Repertoire: set of behavioral characteristics of either an entire species or a single member of the species. Variability in behavior is caused by: (i) Genes (ii) Environment How genes shape behavior: DNA is transcribed to RNA, translated into a protein, which affects the cells (neurons) which make up the brain, which affects the behavior. Genetic differences are caused by differences in nucleotide bases (Purines: Cytosine, Thymine --- Pyrimidine: Guanine Adenine) How environment shape behavior: physical, chemical, biological, social, and economical environments can cause changes in the genetic chain. Radiation (UV light) and free radicals cause mutations ** DNA Packaging: 5 carbon sugar with nitrogen containing base and a phosphate group. Histones (+ve charge) bind to –ve charge DNA. Darwin: (1809-1882): Theory of Evolution: (i) Individuals vary (ii) Differences are inherited (iii) Natural selection: survival of the fittest Evolution and Behavior: How behavior influences evolution: - Ability to find food - Ability to avoid predators - Social dominance - Courtship Chapter 1 Neurons: cells that receive and transmit electrochemical signals Course Themes: (i) Creative Thinking: removed pre-conceived notions and think outside the box) (ii) Clinical Implications: pertaining to illness or treatment; brain dysfunction is studied (iii) Evolutionary Perspective: comparative approach between species (iv) Neuroplasticity: brain can change by like long term alcohol consumption Biopsychology: biological approach to the study of psychology  Neuroanatomy: structure of nervous system  Neurochemistry: chemical bases of brain activity  Neuroendocrinology: interaction between the nervous system and the endocrine system  Neuropharmacology: effect of drugs on neural activity  Neurophysiology: function and activity of nervous system Research Approach * Between-subjects design: A different group of subjects is tested under each condition * Within-subjects design: The same group of subjects is tested under each condition * Variables * Independent variable: The difference between subjects that were administered a certain treatment and those who were not * Dependent variable: The variable measured by the experimenter to assess the effect of the IV (independent variable) * Any differences in the DV (dependent variable) between the conditions must have been caused by the IV * There should be no difference between conditions so that there will be no unintended differences, or confounded variables * Coolidge effect: the fact that a copulating male who becomes incapable of continuing to copulate with one sex partner can often recommence copulating with a new sex partner * Quasiexperimental studies: studies of groups of subjects who have been exposed to the conditions of interest in the real world * Case studies: focus on a single case or subject * More in-depth * Excellent source of testable hypotheses * The main problem is with their generalisability (the degree to which their results can be applied to other cases > Pure and Applied Research * Pure research: research motivated primarily by the curiosity of the researcher and done solely for the purpose of acquiring knowledge * Applied research: research intended to bring about some direct benefit to humankind Human vs Non Human Human: cheap, self-report, Non: simpler brain Subjects applicable to us comparative approach and less ethical issues Formal vs Non-Formal Quasiexperiment: subject Case Study: single subject Experiment naturally exposed to approach – hard to conditions generalize Pure Research vs Applied Pure: the motivation is Applied: motivation is the Research curiosity benefit to mankind Divisions of Biopsychology a. Physiological Psychology: neural mechanisms of behavior through direct brain manipulation b. Pharmacology: manipulation of neural activity with drugs c. Neuropsychology: study psychological effects of brain damage d. Psychophysiology: study of relation between physiological or psychological (non- invasive) e. Cognitive Neuroscience: neural mechanisms in cognition f. Comparative Psychology: evolution/genetics/adaptiveness of behavior Scientific Method: system for gaining knowledge through observation Empirical = Observational Scientific Inference: empirical method used to study the unobservable (ex: total mvmnt on retina – active eye mvmnt) * Psychology: The scientific study of all overt activities of an organism as well as the underlying internal processes that are related (memory, learning, motivation, perception, emotion, etc.) Hebb’s theory:  Wrote The Organization of Behaviour in 1949  First comprehensive theory of how complex psychological phenomena (memory, learning, motivation, perception, emotion, etc.)might be produced by brain activity  It discredited the view that psychological functioning is too complex to have its roots in the physiology/chemistry of the brain  Based his theory on experiments involving both humans and laboratory animals, on clinical cases studies, and on logical arguments developed from his own insightful observations of daily life Korsakoff’s Syndrome * A syndrome largely caused by the brain damage associated with thiamine (vitamin B1) deficiency that leads to severe memory loss Morgan’s Canon * When there are several possible interpretations for a behavioural observation, the rule is to give precedence to the simplest one Chapter 2 Dichotomies of Behavior: Physiological vs Psychological Physiological: chimps are self-aware Psychological: brain damage causes no awareness Cartesian Dualism: Descartes: universe is composed of physical matter and the human mind * First line is composed of demonstrations that even the most complex psychological changes (changes in self-awareness, memory or emotion) can be produced by damage to, or stimulation of, parts of the brain * Second line of evidence of composed of demonstrations that some nonhuman species, particularly primate species, possess abilities that were once assumed to be pure psychological and thus purely human * Osomatognosia: a deficiency in the awareness of parts of one’s own body; involves left side of the body and usually results from damage to the right parietal lobe Also: inherited vs learned or nature vs nurture Behaviorism: nurture wins Ethology: study of instincts All behavior is the interaction between genetic endowment (evolution); experience, and perception Evolve: undergo gradual orderly change Evidence (Darwin): - Evolution present in fossil records - Similarities among species - Selective breeding affects Fitness: ability to survive and contribute genes to the new generation Behavior and Evolution: (i) Social Dominance: alpha male elephant seal copulates 37% (ii) Courtship Display: male signals interest, female responds Conspecifics: members of the same species develop different displays thus leading to a new species Evolution Vertebrates: multi-cellular water-dwellers existed; then chlorates evolved (have dorsal nerve cord) Amphibians: chorolates (bony fish) move to land seeking fresh water and new food sources and evolve Reptiles: have shell covered eggs and dry scales, thus not requiring water Mammals: mammary gland secretion, long term womb security and environmental stability Emergence of Humankind: Homonins: primates that include humans. Homonism: - Australopithecus: 4 feet tall, walk upright - Homo: (i) Homoerectus (ii) Homosapiens Human evolution: Thinking about Human Evolution * Evolution does not proceed in a single line; think of it as a dense bush * Humans have little reason to claim evolutionary supremacy; we are last surviving species of a family (hominins) that has existed for only a blip of evolutionary time * Evolution does not always proceed slowly and gradually * Few products of evolution have survived to the present day * Evolution does not progress to preordained perfection – evolution is a tinkerer not an architect * Not all existing behaviors or structures are adaptive; spandrels are the incidental non-adaptive evolutionary by-products (human belly button is a spandrel) * Not all existing adaptive characteristics evolved to perform their current functions * Exaptations: evolved to perform one function and were later co-opted to perform another * Similarities among species do not necessarily mean that species have common evolutionary origins * Homologous: structures that are similar because they have common evolutionary origin * Analogous: structures that are similar but do not have common evolutionary origin * The similarities between analogous structures result from convergent evolutionàthe evolution in unrelated species of similar solutions to the same environmental demands Human Brain: - Size isn’t equal intelligence - Brain ratio isn’t equal intelligence - Evolution: larger cerebrum and increased convolutions Mate Bonding: - Trivers: mammals mate bond because infants are weak and it pays to help - Polygyny: one mate with multiple females (more choosy) because females contribute much more - Polyandry: 1 female and multiple females (one seahorse) - Monogamy: 1:1 Mendel: Dichotomous traits, occur in one form or another True Breeding: monozygote DNA: adenine, thymine, guanine, cytosine Mutation: accidental genetic alterations Proteins: amino acid chains Enhancers: sequence in DNA which determines the initiation of protein synthesis and rate Gene Expression: determines cell development and specialization Transcription Factors: protein influencing extent of gene expression Mitochondrial DNA: energy generating evolutionary clock - Ontogeny: development over lifetime - Phylogeny: development through the ages Maze bright vs Maze dull (all nature, no nurture) Single Gene Metabolic Disorder Phenyl Ketonuria (PKU): Mentally retarded children with seizures and hyperactivity. Phenylpyruvic acids in urine means lacking the phenylalanine hydroxylase enzyme so dopamine isn’t made Bird Song: Sensory: hearing the males sing Sensorimotor: practice singing Age limited vs Open Ended learning * Zeitgeist: general intellectual climate of our culture; we think about things in ways that have been ingrained in us by our Zeitgeist Lines of inquiry by Epigenetics: Active Nongene DNA * had been assumed that the primary, if not only, function of DNA was the synthesis of proteins * Pseudogenes or junk DNA: portions of DNA that do not directly participate in the synthesis of proteins and thought to be nonfunctioning evolutionary remnants * However, many of these areas control structural gene expression Micro RNAs * Short single strands of RNA; have major effects on gene expression through their actions on enhancers and mRNA * Influence brain development and synapse function; disruption is associated with neurodegenerative disorders Alternative Splicing * It had been a “law” in genetics that one gene encodes one protein; however alternative splicing occurs when some strands of mRNA are broken apart and pieces are spliced to new segments; this allows a single gene to encode more than 1 protein Monoallelic Expression * Body cells have 2 copies (alleles) of each gene (except for genes on Y chromosome) * There are many exceptions to this generalization, esp. in the nervous system * In some cases, one of two alleles is inactivated by unidentified epigenetic mechanisms and the other is expressed à called monoallelic expression Chapter 3 Anatomy of Nervous System: Central Nervous System (CNS): - Brain - Spinal Cord Peripheral Nervous system: everything else - Somatic Nervous system: interact with external environment - Autonomic Nervous System: interact with internal environment  Sympathetic: lumbar and thoracic: mobilize energy sources when threatened  Parasympathetic: brain and sacral: conserve energy - Nerve: axons outside CNS - Tract: axons inside CNS - Ganglion: neuron cell bodies outside CNS - Nucleus: neuron cell bodies inside CNS CNS Protective System: - Bone: skull and vertebrate - Meninges: membrane (i) Dura Mater: tough (durable); connects the skull (ii) Arachnoid: web-like, blood vessels (iii) Pia Mater: adheres to brain surface, thin, - Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF): shock absorber and medium (i) Central Canal: spinal channel rd th (ii) Cerebral Ventricles: 4 brain chambers (2 lateral, 3 and 4 )  CSF is produced by choroid plexus produces it (too much: hydrocephalus: waterhead) Neurons: Specialized for reception, conduction, and transmission of signals. Axon Hillock: junction Myelin: fatty insulation Axon: projection from cells Nodes of Ranvier: gaps between myelin for it to jump Buttons: ends of the branch Synapse: gap between adjacent neurons  Glial cell ratio 1:1 to neurons Glial Cells: 1. Oligodendrocytes: - Paddle-shaped - Rich in fatty myelin - Wrap around axonS of CNS neurons (insulates, prevent leaks) 2. Schwann Cells: - Oligodendrocytes of PNS - Wraps around only one axon - Axonal regeneration 3. Astrocytes: - Largest, star-shaped - Hold neurons and blood vessels together - Transfer blood nutrients to neurons 4. Microglia: - Small - Move around looking for injury or disease - Phagocytosis and inflammation Directions: - Medial: to middle - Lateral: to sides - Ipsilateral: same side - Contralateral: opposite sides - Proximal: near center of interest - Distal: toward periphery - Dorsal: towards back - Ventral: towards belly - Anterior: head end - Posterior: tail end - Horizontal: cuts into upper and lower planes (superior and inferior) - Sagittal: right and left hemispheres - Coronal: Front and back Four Parts of CNS: - Spinal Cord - Hind Brain - Mid Brain - Forebrain Spinal Cord: - Gray matter: soma - White matter: myelin sheath - Dorsal: All dorsal root axons (somatic or autonomic) are sensory (afferent) unipolar neurons with their cell bodies grouped together just outside the cord to form the dorsal root ganglia - Ventral: * Neurons of the ventral root are motor (efferent) multipolar neurons with their cell bodies in the ventral horns  8 cervical nerves  12 thoracic nerves  5 lumbar nerves  5 sacral nerves  1 coccygal nerves Hind Brain: - Metencephalon  Rich in axon tracts  Reticular formation  Pons: feeds info to cerebellum  Cerebrum: cerebellar cortex/subcortical cerebrall nuclei (belly dancing) - Meyencephalon (Medulla)  Axon tracts  Reticular formation: o Net o From medulla to mid brain o 100 Nuclei Mid Brain: Mesencephalon - Tectum: dorsal  Superior colliculus: receive optic info through cranial nerve  Inferior Colliculus: receive auditory info through cranial nerve - Tegmentum: Ventral  Reticular Information  Red Nucleus: motor function  Substantia Nigra: motor function - lost in parkinson  Periaquaductal Gray: gray matter around aqueduct ** Brain Stem: Medulla+Pon+Midbrain Forebrain: Diencephalon: (twin)  Thalamus: 2-lobbed on top of brain stem, massa intermedia - Relay station to cortex - Many Nuclei:  Lateral geniculate nuclei: visual  Medial geniculate nuclei: auditory  Ventral posteropr Nuclei: somatosensory - Hypothalamus:  Motivated behavior  Regulates pituitary gland  Optic Chiasm Telencephalon: - Cortical: outermost layer and white matter - Subcortical: beneath the white matter  Basal Ganglia: voluntary motor control  Amygdala  Striatum  Globus pallidus  Substantia nigra  Caudate  Putoman Limbic System: - Ring - Hippocampus, amygdakam firbux, cingulate cortex, septum, mammillary bodies - 4 Fs: fighting, feeding, fleeing, fucking (also learning and memory) Cortical: convolutions for surface area, longitudinal fissure from the right-left crack with corpus callosum connecting lissencephalic (smooth brained) - Fissure: deep crack: longitudinal - Sulcus: shallow crack - Gyrus: cortex between two sulcus - Lobe: large region of cortex Subcortical Regions - Cerebral lobes are NOT functional units; just know functions of areas within each lobe Ocipital lobes: responsible for visual input Parietal Lobe * Post central gyrus analyzes sensations from body (touch) * Other areas in posterior parts perceive location of both objects & our own bodies & in directing our attention Temporal Lobe - * Superior temporal gyrus involved in hearing & language - * Inferior temporal cortex identifies complex visual patterns - * Medial portion is important for certain kinds of memory Frontal Lobe - * Precentral gyrus and adjacent frontal cortex have motor function - * Frontal cortex anterior to motor cortex performs complex cog. Functions (planning response sequences, evaluating outcomes of potential patterns of behavior etc) Neocortex - * Makes up about 90% of human cerebral cortex - * Six-layered cortex of relatively recent evolution - * Cortical neurons fall into pyramidal (pyramid-shaped) cells & stellate cells - * Pyramidal cells: large multipolar neurons with pyramid-shaped cell bodies, a large dendrite (apical dendrite) and a very long axon - * Stellate cells: small star-shaped interneurons (neurons with a short axon or no axon) - * Six layers of neocortex differ from each other in terms of size & density of their cell bodies & the relative proportion of pyramidal stellate cell bodies that they contain - * Many long axons & dendrites course VERTICALLY (at right angles to cortical layers) through the neocortex - * Columnar organization: vertical flow of info; neurons in a given cortical column of neocortex often form a mini-circuit that performs a single function - * Because stellate cells of layer IV are specialized for receiving sensory signals from the thalamus, layer IV is extremely thick in areas of the sensory cortex - * Because the pyramidal cells of layer V conduct signals from the neocortex to the brain stem & spinal cord, layer V is extremely thick in areas of motor cortex Hippocampus (Part of Limbic System) - * NOT part of the neocortex but part of the cortex - * Has three major layers - * Located at the medial edge of the cerebral cortex; folds back in medial temporal lobe - * Plays a major role in some kinds of memory, particularly memory for spatial location Subcortical Regions: The Limbic System & the Basal Ganglia Limbic System - * Group of structures that surround the thalamus like ring shapes (limbic means ring) - * Consists of hippocampus, amygdala, fornix, cingulate cortex, septum, mammillary bodies - * Involved in regulation of motivated behaviors (fleeing, feeding, fighting, sex) - * Amygdala: found in anterior temporal lobe; hippocampus is posterior to amygdala (runs beneath the thalamus in the medial temporal lobe) - * Cingulate cortex: large strip of cortex in cingulate gyrus; encircle dorsal thalamus - * Fornix: major tract of limbic system; also encircles dorsal thalamus; starts at dorsal end of hippocampus and ends in the septum & mammillary bodies - * Septum: midline nucleus located at anterior tip of cingulate cortex - * Several tracts connect the septum & mammillary bodies with the amygdala & hippocampus, thereby completing the limbic ring Basal Ganglia - * Amygdala is also part of basal ganglia - * Caudate is tail like; Putamen is center that caudate forms around; both have striped appearance known as striatum - * Globus pallidus: remaining structure of basal ganglia; located medial to putamen - * BG is necessary for sensory-driven and goal directed voluntary movement Basal Ganglia - Parkinson’s Disease - * Disorder characterized by rigidity, tremors & poverty of voluntary movement - * Associated with deterioration of pathway that projects to the striatum from the substantia nigra of the midbrain Nucleus Accumbens - * In medial portion of the ventral striatum - * Plays a role in the rewarding effects of addictive drugs & other reinforcers Chapter 4 Resting Membrane Potential - Membrane Potential: difference in electrical charge between inside and outside of a cell - Recording Membrane potential: microelectrodes are inserted (-70 mV) - Ionic basis for it:  Homogenizing Factors: (i) Diffusion: random motion (ii) Electrostatic Pressure: dispersion of like charge  Unequal Distribution: (i) Passive: permeability differences to ions (ii) Sodium Potasssium pump - Inside: negative protein and positive potassium - Outside: calcium, chloride, and sodium  Potassium ion channels (leaky)  Sodium Potassium Pump: 3 Na+ for 2 K+ Neurotransmittors bind and cause: (i) Depolarization: decrease potential – more positive (ii) Hyperpolarization: increase potential –less positive Post-synaptic Potentials: graded responses, rapid, decremental - Excitatory: depolarizes: increase neuron firing - Inhibitory: hyperpolarizes: decrease neuron firing Integration of PSP and generation of AP: - Single synapse: little or no effect - Axon hillock: junction between soma and axon Threshold of Excitation: - Usually -65 mV - Level at which sum of depolarization and hyperpolarizations is sufficient to generate AP Action Potential: massive, 1 ms, -70mV to 50mV, all or none - Spatial Summation: two PSPs signalled at different parts are integrated - Temporal Summation: rapid succession of PSP at the same synapse Conduction of Action Potentials: - Voltage-activated ion channels: activated by membrane potentials Once threshold is reached: Depolarization (Rising Phase) 1. Na+ is the influx; -70 mV to +50 mV 2. K+ efflux: high internal concentration and positive internl charge 3. Na+ channels close ***Peak Reached Repolarization 4. Potassium channels open 5. K+ efflux Hyper Polarization 6. The channels start to close at -70 and so hyperpolarization to -90 7. Na+K+ transporter Refractory Period: reason AP is opthodromic: one direction - Absolute: impossible to generate another AP - Relative: difficult to generate another AP, strong signal needed Action potential: Active, slower, nondecremental Conduction in Myelinated Axons: - Saltatory (jump) - Antidromic: regenerated at each point Conduction in unmyelinated: interneurons, passive, and decremental Hodgkin-Huxley: - Neurons, fire without signal - Axons conduct both graded and AP - All AP of motor are same, not in cerebral - Many cerebral neurons: no axons, no AP, dendrites conduct it Synaptic Transmission Synapse Structure: - Axodendrite synapses: synapse of axon terminal on dendrite spines - Axosomatic: axon terminal button on soma - Dendodentritic: synapse can go either way - Axoaxonic: mediate presynaptic facilitation and inhibition (can influence a synapse selectively) Direct Synapse: site of neurotransmitter release and reception are close Indirect: they’re further Neurotransmittors Neuropeptides Neurotransmitters Assembled in ribosomes Packaged in synaptic vesicles by Golgi 3-36 amino acids Transported by microtubules Gradually released propor
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