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Hywel Morgan

LECTURE 1 Bad taste-hard wired, adaptive. But attracted to sweet taste-sugar, glucose. We are hardwired to b eattracted to these tastes-salt, sour, bitter. Language is hardwired, capablity to acquire language, geneticly inherited, can evolve. We are hard wired to acquire a behaviour but if donot have exposure in the crtical period it is never acquired. Ex/victor-speech In infancy-habituation-staring longer at unique, new or impossible situations. Can tell what they learned and are adaptive to. Lack of ability to habituate is a disorder-autism. Ex/visual cliff-infants that adapt and learn it symbolically-milestone so hardwired. Not hardwired because you have to fall first. -conservation January 13, 2014-Piaget's theory of development Influential for infant development, mainly cognitive development. Piaget-swiss psychologist. Vygostsky- russian psychologist. At birth-infant.After -toddler.At 5-10: chil. 10-13:middle adulthood. 13-19: adolescence Piaget explained how we adapted to our environment from infancy to adolescence. He proposed: that by adapting, you build schemas right from infancy. It is a framework. Second was that this proceeded in stages. Freud was the first to say stages, if you cant pass stage 1, you can't get to stage 3, you get stuck. Not all psychologists have proposed this. Piaget's theory: Schemes • Psychological Structures- organized ways of making sense of experience o "scripts" basic cognitive structures, help us make sense of our world. We rely on schemas to adapt to our world. It is what you expect. Schemas help us to adapt to our environment, efficient, can help make things go wrong. When environment does not conform to schema-mistake-'I didn't see that coming'. Schemas for everything. Will not change, difficult to change a schema. o If learned a schema that is dysfunctional is called abnormal behaviour, which is pathology. Ex/ "im stupid, not worth' o Schemas start in infancy, piaget suggested, first schema was 'suck'. •Change with age o Action-based sensorimotor patterns ie/suck • Start off very basic, get more elaborate as time goes on o Later move to 'thinking before acting' pattern-creative and deliberate Building schemes • Adaption-building schemes through direct interaction with environment •Assimilation- using current schemes to interpret external world •Accommodation-adjusting old schemes and creating new ones to better fit environment Piaget said occurs throughout childhood, difficult to change. End of middle childhood at 10 or 12, as becoming established is malleable but difficult to change. Can build on a new schema but not create a new one. If not learned during a critical period will not be developed 1 UsingAssimilation andAccommodation Equilibrium and disequilibrium • Use assimilation during equilibrium • Disequilibrium prompts accommodation Organization- internal rearranging and linking schemes. o Propositional networking-semantic network: linking things together. Ie/say a related word to the one word: concepts that are related together in propositional network. Piaget first to introduce to link concepts that can be rearranged. Network of propositions are all activated-ie/triggered words Sensorimotor Stage • Birth to 2 years • Building schemes through sensory and motor exploration • Circular reactions-sucking first schema (reflex), becomes a pattern-suck other things, then pattern becomes circular because gets the same desired outcome. Ie/cry so does the same thing, will not try anything new. Form of conditioning. Substages: 1. Reflexive schemes: sucking innate 2. Primary circular reactions 3. Secondary circular reactions 4. Coordination of secondary circular reactions-object permanence- an object out of sight continues to exist, a child will not realize until 1 year. Interested in objects that have a lot of contour, not familiar with, stare longer and stare at contour- contrasts, shadows, shape, shades and third is stare at faces. If put a blanket then will lose interest because think it is non-existent. 5. Tertiary circular reactions- manipulate objects 6. Mental representation-deferred imitation, modeling behaviour that they have seen someone else do. Object Permanence Understanding that objects continue to exist when out of sight • Develops in Substage 4. Not yet complete.A-not-B search error. Errors made at 1 year old. Mental representations Internal, mental depictions of people, events, information • Can manipulate with mind • Permits deferred imitation and role play o Role play, imitating things they have seen. Past 2-role play what they haven't seen. Violation-of-expectation method Habituation even. Car on railway. Stare longer because unexpected. What is the reason for this test? To see if infants younger then 1 are familiar with the object permanence. The answer is yes they are. Deferred imitation Piaget: develops about 18 months Newer research: • 6 weeks- facial imitation. Seems to be hard wired, imitating facial features. Ie/yawn. 2 • 6-9 months- copy actions with objects • 12-14 months- imitate rationally • 18 months- imitate intended, but not completed, actions Evaluation of the Sensorimotor stage Some suggest infants are born with core knowledge-built in- in several domains of thought. Ie/language- first said by noam chomsky-LAD • Develop with Piaget suggested: Object search,A-not-B, make-believe play • Develop earlier than Piaget suggested-object permanence, deferred imitation, categorization, problem solving by analogy Sucking, babbling, cooing Core knowledge perspective Born with innate, special purpose knowledge systems: core domains of thought Suggested domains of core knowledge: physical, linguistic, psychological, numerical -Piaget said infants can't count, but infants are hard wired with the concept of more or less (numerical). Piaget disagreed, conservation understood at 5 or 6. Testing babies' numerical knowledge: stares at © longer which suggests can count, there is only one object now. Infants numerical knowledge Infants may be able to: discriminate qantities Information-processing improvements Attention, memory, categorizations Cognitive Development • What are the changes? • How do they occur? • What are the neurological mechanisms? Neurodevelopment -3 concepts Brain-neurons (communication ) and glial cells (support) At birth have more neurons then you have now. • Proliferation- 'grow more'. Occurs during second trimester of pregnancy. Greatest proliferation of neurons in the nervous system at a really fast rate, 200,000/second. By the time of birth, proliferation has ended. You have more neurons then you need but the brain continues to grow while you have less neurons. because continued glial cell growth-myelination, insulating neurons. Important connections are favoured and less important connections disappear-pruning. Cells divide during fetal development, stop at birth. If suffer brain damage after brain then there are no more brain cells but have more than you need so brain can maybe compensate for it. • Migration-after cells divide, they move into specific places into proper layers. Improper placement in layers is schizophrenia which doesn’t manifest until early adulthood. • Specialization-last step, partially specialized-neurons-specialized cell. Once migrated, will further specialize to a function. This occurs in eutro 3 Cross-section of the Brain- can have only three dimensions: slide is sagittal. Horizontal, coronal Classifying: structural and functional. Three levels of the brain Structural-Forebrain: cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus. Much more sophisticated function of any other species because evolved in thinking, reason, p-s, judgement, decision making. Midbrain-developed later after hindbrain, more sophisticated. motivation Hindbrain: cerebellum, pons, medulla (most basic of functions-ie/breathing, pumping blood, conscious-first to develop) Functional- different functions Brain is source of all behaviour. Profession: Studied by neurologist m.d. , psychiatrist m,d-psychopahology, anatomist-phd-neuroantomy-structure of the brain, neuropsychologist-phd Hindbrain Medulla : controls breathing, heart rate, blood pressure. Will die if lesion. Pons: regulation of sleep/wake cycle-consciousness. Damage to this section will lead to narcolepsy, coma. Cerebellum: involved in balance and coordination of movement.Also procedural memory is stored here. If damaged, then dunk and sailor defficiency-gateway Midbrain • The relay point for hearing and vision, and movement. • One of the places pain is registered • Includes: o Superior colliculus-processing visual information, orient you away from unusual stimuli even before recognizing what it is o Inferior colliculus- processes auditory information, orients away or towards auditory stimuli o sustantia nigra- starting and stopping voluntary movements. To keep movements going-spinal cord. Cerebellum-involuntary movement. Damage to substantia nigra is Parkinson's disease. Forebrain (top)-subcortical structure • Thalamus: sensory switchboard-for all five senses.All incoming for conscious processing comes from thalamus and outgoing except for olfactory does not go through because developed first. • Hypothalamus: governs motivational ( hunger, thirst, sex, sleep, temperature control) and emotional responses. Pituitary gland • Basal Ganglia-movement • Limbic system: linked primarily to memory, emotions, drives. Consolidation of long term memory. Amayglda, cingulate gyrus. Cerebral Cortex Lobes are functional distinctions • Frontal lobes-Primary motor cortex, voluntary movements, attention, goal-directed behaviour/phinease gage-personality change. Regulates emotion. • Parietal lobes- primary somatosensory-opposite side of the central sulcus-registers and processes boy sensations. Sensations of touch and bodily position. Spatial orientation. Homonoclous 4 • Temporal-ear level. Hearing, smell and balance and equilibrium. Underneath is hippocampus. Slide- coronal • Occipital lobes-vision. Contralateral projection into visual cortex at the back of the brain. Optic chiasm- crosses over, where 10% do not cross over but go to superior colliculus. Valleys- sulci, hills-gyri- Central Sulcus along the frontal lobe is the PMC which generates voluntary movements. LEFT: right hand touch movement, speech, language, writing for right handers. RIGHT: left hand touch movement, spatial construction, face recognition, nonverbal imagery, writing for left handers LECTURE 2 Ray figure-test. More efficient to process larger shapes not peripheral images. Visospational info processing. Ackrison and shiffren model. Most widely used way of learning from a psychologist POV. Amodular theory-useful for development of artificial intelligence. Used for the design of computers. Bottom up processing. Incoming information- sensory information (first part of module)-5 arrows for 5 senses, registering all five at the same time. 1. Vision mostly used, and relied on heavily. Rods and cones detect electromagnetic radiation. Different wavelengths of colour. 2. Second most important, hearing-auditory visual. Detecting vibration molecules in the air. Different wavelengths of frequency, amplitude. 3. Touch-somato sensation-detect pressure otherwise filter and heat. Filtering out information due to attention. Somatosensory information-pressure, heat and pain and vibration. Receptors in the skin to detect all four kinds of somatosensory sensations have separate receptors, being filtered out. 4. Gustotary- sense of taste. Help to adapt to environment. Receptors in mouth that gives us sense of taste -sweet, salt. Need for survival and adaptive. Not desirable sour, bitter, implies poison. Tongue and mouth detect chemicals 5. Olfaction- sense of smell. Detecting chemicals in the air. Receptors in the nose Information process module: filter out. Theory comes in modules which is evidence to suggest this module is correct. All five sensory inputs are being registered at the same time. -part of the brain registering these senses. Research showing all have perfect photographic memory-iconic memory-a register for all senses coming in. a lot of it being filtered out. Material being filtered out is lost-decay. Things to filter in-meaningful things -spirling study- flashed letter for 15 ms.Able to recall 4 letters. Were able to process all 12 letters. Clever experiment-assign three tones to each row of letters (3 lines). First row-high tone, last row-low tone came with the presentation of the letter presented in half a second within the 15 ms. Person can remember letters based on the tone so still processing in the sensory register. The decay part occurs within half a second. P
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