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University of Toronto St. George
Ashley Waggoner Denton

PSY320H1FWeek 1 4What is an attitude MCA cognitive representation that summarizes an evaluation of somethingA categorization of a stimulusAn association in memory between a given object and a given summary evaluation of the objectAn overall evaluation of an object that is based on cognitive affective and behavioural informationHave two key dimensions directionvalence and intensitystrengthWhat are the different types of validity MCFace validity Is it measuring what it should be measuringContent validity Does it cover all dimensions of the construct being measuredConvergent validity How well does your measure matches up with others that measure the same thingDiscriminant validity Does it relate to things that are not relevantPredictive validity Can it predict future behavioursWhat are some of the ways that reliability can be measured MCInternal consistency Are each of the scale items measuring the same thingTestretest reliability Do scores remain consistent across timeWhat are some of the problems with selfreportsWording effects The same question asked with different words can produce very different resultsEg I believe a woman should have the right to take the life of her unborn child vs I believe a woman should have the right to control her own bodyContext The affiliation of the researcher can influence how people respond Eg People may assume that different questioners are interested in different thingsOrder effects The response to a question can be greatly influenced by the question that preceded it Eg People show greater support for legalized abortion if the question is preceded by questions regarding womens rights vs questions about traditional values People will interpret questions they dont understand based on surrounding questionsResponse options How many options how scales are anchored the presence of a dont know option etc Eg How successful would you say you have been in life 0 not at all successful10 extremely successful vs 5 not at all successful5 extremely successfulSocial desirability bias People respond in a way that makes them look good rather than in an honest wayAcquiescence bias Some people seem to agree with everything regardless of what a question asksHard to capture complex attitudes Structured attitude measures fail to capture much of the flavour and nuances of attitudesWeek 2 3What types of information contribute to an attitude MCAffective information How do you feel about the attitude object What type of emotions does it elicitHardwired often acquired from first gut reactionsBehavioural information Knowledge of your past present and future interactions with the objectHow often you shop at Walmart is relevant to your attitude toward WalmartHabitual behaviour feed into our attitudeCognitive information Your knowledge about the attitude object including any beliefs thoughts or attributes you associate with the object You may dislike a particular celebrity because you believe they engaged in some despicable behaviour Eg Chris BrownWhat are two different ways that attitudes can be structured What does this have to do with ambivalence MCOnedimensional View The positive and negative elements are at opposite ends of a single dimension people will tend to experience either end of the dimension or a location in betweenThe existence of positive beliefs feelings and behaviours inhibits the occurrence of their negative counterpartsNo ambivalenceTwodimensional View One dimension reflects whether the attitude has few or many positive elements and the other dimension reflects whether the attitude has few or many negative elementsPeople can possess any combination of positivity or negativity in their attitudesInconsistent with onedimensional view attitudes with many positivemany negative elementsattitudinal ambivalencePotential ambivalence A state of conflict that exists when people simultaneously possess positive and negative evaluations of an attitude objectIntracomponentattitudinal ambivalence within the same component Eg Blondes believing blondes are fun but also think they are stupidIntercomponent ambivalence between two components Eg Liking badboys know it is stupid but you feel your heart beats faster anywaysFelt ambivalence actually feeling of tension people experience when consciously thinking about the attitude objectWhen people report having mixed conflicted feelingsWhat are the different functions that attitudes may serve How might we measure this SA 12 ptsExperientialSchematic Attitudes based on past interactions that become part of a knowledge structure or schema that organizes past experiences and provides guidelines for future interactionsObjectappraisal function attitudes help us summarize the positive and negative attributes of objects in our social worldsKnowledge function attitudes help organize our understanding of the world guiding how we attend to store and retrieve informationUtilitarian function attitudes alert us to rewarding objects or situations we should approach and punishing objects or situations we should avoidEg My opinions about gay men and lesbians mainly are based on whether or not someone I care about is gayDefensive Projection of unacceptable motives and expression of hostilityExternalizationEgodefensive function attitudes enable us to maintain cherished beliefs about ourselves by protecting us from awareness of our negative attributes and impulses or from facts that contradict our cherished beliefs or desiresEg My opinions about gay men and lesbians mainly are based on the fact that I would rather not think about homosexuality or gay peopleValueExpressive When the attitude is used as a vehicle for expressing important personal valuesValueexpressive function attitudes help us express who we are our selfconcept and our central valuesEg My opinions about gay men and lesbians mainly are based on my concern that we safeguard the civil liberties of all people in our societySocialExpressive When the attitude is used as a way of connecting to or fitting in with important others
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