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Will Huggon

Lecture 4 part 2- Attitudes and behavior - Lecture 5- Attitudes and behavior Theory of reasoned action - Before doing a behavior there is o Salient beliefs o Probability of these beliefs coming true o Evaluation (good or bad) of these beliefs - And whether the person does the behavior depends = sum (probability of belief coming true x evaluation) - Rated on a scale from -3 to +3 Subjective norms about behavior - other peoples’ opinions are important - two components o normative beliefs (referent’s opinion) o motivation to comply (how important their opinion is to you) - whether the person does the behavior depends on sum (NB X MC) , both on scale from - 3 to +3 Intention - Intention (probability of behavior) = own attitude towards the behavior (probability of consequences coming true, and evaluations of these consequences) + subjective norms (what you believe other people will think about the behavior, and how important these other people’s opinions are to you. Priming the private self vs. the collective self - Influence on attitude and subjective norms - Done by making participants think about what makes them different vs. similar to their friends - Priming the private self = attitudes more predictive of behavioral intention - Priming the collective self = subjective norms more predictive Previous behavior can also predict behavior - Learned preferences or habits of behaving o Predict intention and behavior Personal factors - Attitudinal ambivalence - Ex: dieting, ambivalence = care a lot about the diet, and ALSO care a lot about eating/food. - High ambivalence = high positive attitude and high negative attitude - High ambivalence individuals’ behaviors and intentions are hard to predict, maybe influenced by the positive or negative component. Depends on context Theory of planned behavior - Modification of theory of reasoned action - Added component: perceived behavioral control = the extent to which someone believes they can behave in an attitude congruent way (or influence the outcomes of the behavior). Ex: standing up to bullies - Perceived behavioral control may be different from actual behavioral control Self-awareness - Can influence behavior - Children taking Halloween candy example Attitude accessibility - Associative network = attitude objects (and things associated with them) are nodes in an associative network. Attitudes are what connect attitude objects to their evaluations (which are also nodes). - More frequently the link is activated, the stronger the attitude becomes. - when one concept is activated, this can activate connected concepts too - The stronger the link between attitude object and summary evaluation, stronger the attitude, the higher the accessibility, more likely it will influence behavior Associated thing: ugly Evaluation: NEGATIVE Attitude object: CAR Associated thing: Evaluation: transportation POSITIVE Attitude to behavior process model: Lecture 6 Fazio’s mode model - Motivation and cognitive capacity to process information, if yes, then deliberate processing model and general attitude is activated and influences behavior - If no, then spontaneous processing model is activated, if there is strong, accessible attitude, then general attitude is activated and influence behavior. If no strong salient attitude, then behavior is unrelated to attitude Response latency - Can be a measure of attitude accessibility and strength - The stronger/more accessible an attitude is  more likely it will influence behavior Perception and attitudes - Perception is subjective, depends on interpretation not only sensation Accessibility and self-reports - Attitude accessibility can affect self-reports - Ex: how satisfied are you with your life + how often do you date (vs. other way around) - Ex: recall 6 vs. 12 incidents of being assertive + how assertive are you Priming - Recently activated info influence interpretations of other info - Ex; the classic Donald study. Primed for aggression or not (reading scrambled words related to aggression or neutral words). And rate how hostile Donald is. The ones primed for aggression saw him as more hostile - Other versions of Donald study: subliminally presented aggressive words and rate how hostile Donald is Associative network model vs. Parallel constraint model - Parallel constraints model- when a concept is activated, it can activate or inhibit connected concepts. Connectionist model - Pattern completion needed for activation of attitudes - And different concepts share parts of patterns (overlapping patterns) Automatic attitude activation - Lack of awareness, intention, effort, or control - Sequential priming studies: response to the target is quicker when the prime was related to the target. Ex: prime = nurse, target = doctor. Vs. prime = pizza, target = doctor - Evaluative priming studies: association speeds response to the target, when both the target and prime are negative or both are positive - Stronger the link between the two objects, the faster the responding to the second What do automatic attitudes do? - Provide an automatic evaluation of a situation - Bias perception Stronger/more accessible attitudes - Easier to remember - Cost: w
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