Lecture 5: ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOURS.
Theory of Reasoned Action:
- Fishbein and Azjen (also thought that attitudes are a learned predisposition, did aggregation of
attitudes, attitude = sum of belief times evaluation)
- Based on the belief that the immediate predictor of behaviour is a behavioural intention
- Attitudes and social norms both affect behaviour
- So what predicts behavioural action?
Behaviour: getting drunk at a party
Attitude: includes salient beliefs. (what thoughts come to mind?? Examples: have fun, relax, get
a hangover!!) All positive and negative attitudes are on the table, If I get drunk I will have fun
(positive), get a hangover (negative). Depending on how many
times the attitude gets activated the attitude will become stronger or weaker
1. Belief (R): expectancy - what is the probability of your salient beliefs coming true ? If I get drunk what
are the probabilities that I will have fun or get a hangover? Ranges from -3 to +3
2. Evaluation (e) : how good is that salient belief to you? Judge the valence of action. How good is having
fun, how good is getting a hangover? Ranges from +3 to -3)
- Attitude = Sum of (beliefs X evaluation) – Syllogistic model.
- All these numbers are specific to a person.
- However depending on the subjective norms the person might or might not get drunk
1. Normative beliefs (NB): what you think that others will think of your actions. What will partner think of
me getting drunk? What will my close friends think?
2. Motivation to comply (MC): how important is their approval to you?
- Subjective norms = Sum of (NB X MC)
- Intention = Attitude + Subjective norms
-However attitude and subjective norms might not have equal power, depending on the power
-Relative importance depends on independent person vs. interdependent person 2
1. McArdle (1972)
- Asked alcoholics if they intended to sign up for an alcohol treatment program
- The correlation between intending to sign up and actually signing up was high
2. Davidson and Jaccard (1979)
- Measured women’s attitudes and subjective norms (to get their intention) on
having a baby within the next 2 years
-The correlation between getting a baby and their intention was low. As just
because you want a baby does not mean that you will get one
-When intention was correlated with attempted conception, the correlation was
-the correlation between those women who had a baby within the next 2 years and those who intended to
have a baby within the next 2 years was 0.51
PRIMING THE IMPORTANCE OF ATTITUDES VERSUS SOCIAL NORMS.
Priming the private self affects the relative weights of attitudes and subjective norms
Ybarra and Trafimow (researchers)
- Participants were asked to think for 2 minutes about things that prime their individuality (what
makes them unique) vs. things that prime collectivism (what makes them common)
- Independence vs. interdependence
- Later participants rated their attitudes, social norms and behavioural intentions towards using
- After priming independence, attitudes were a stronger predictor of behavioural intentions than social
- After priming interdependence, subjective norms were a stronger predictor of behavioural intentions
than attitudes 3
(the theory of reasoned action shows that )Attitudes are only one of several factors that
Social norms influence behaviour independently of attitudes
The relative influence of attitudes and social norms is influenced by situational and
personality factors and may vary across attitude objects.
Depending on situational and personality factors, attitude and behaviour relations are
Other factors affection Behaviour:
1) Behaviour Predicting Behaviour:
- Past behaviours can influence future behaviours as well as intention since the past behaviours are familiar.
(Bentler and Speckart)
- Thus past behaviour, attitudes and subjective norms can all influence intention and future behaviour
- the effect of habbit, conditioned releasers or learned predispositions to respond. 4
2) Within Person Factors:
Factors within a person can also moderate the relation between attitudes and Behaviour
One factor is attitudinal ambivalence.
people with ambivalent attitudes are less likely to act in an attitude consistent manner than people
with an unambiguous attitude
E.g. people with attitudinal ambivalence towards eating are more likely to be on and off a diet
Ambivalence: People recognize positive and negative aspects of an attitude object. Ambivalence can
moderate the relation between attitude and behaviour.
High ambivalence: behaviour can be influenced by the positive or the negative aspects (inconsistent)
Low ambivalence: only positive or negative aspects are activated, either or. (consistent)
4. Armitage and Conner : attitudinal ambivalence experiment: a test of 3 key hypotheses
- participants: 71 men and 286 female hospital workers.
I. Attitudes towards dieting
Me eating a low-fat diet in the future is unpleasant or pleasant, unenjoyable or enjoyable and
unsatisfactory or satisfactory.
How you feel towards the action
II. Behavioural Intentions
I intend to eat a low fat diet or I (plan) do not intend to eat a low fat diet (definitely not – definitely do )
Have you gone on a low fat diet recently (strongly disagree-strongly agree)
How often do you go on a low fat diet (never-frequently)
-now think only about the positive aspects of eating a low fat diet. How positive are they?
-now think only about negative aspects of eating a low-fat diet. How negative are they?
Poor predictor of behaviour compared to non-ambiguous
Determining how low or high your ambivalence is.
The equation does not tell you whether the positive or negative aspects are higher
Ambivalence = (Positive + Negative) – ABS(Positive – Negative)
ABS is the absolute score 5
If someone has very low ambivalence, they would have a score of 10 for either positive or negative and
the other would be a 0. Then the left side would be 10 and the right side would also be also a 10 thus making
the ambivalence 0.
Low ambivalence correlates higher with intentions and behaviour
High ambivalence correlates lower with intentions and behaviour
Intentions and behaviours correlates really well with each other.
-Conclusion: consistent attitudes have a stronger effect on behaviour than ambivalent attitudes.
Theory of Planned Behaviour. (Ajzen 1985)
- Modificant of theory of reasoned action
- Added one component : perceived behavioural control influenced intention and Behaviour. One
needs to believe that he or she can control his/her behaviour in an attitude congruent way. How easy
or hard will it be to perform the behaviour?
- Consider? How each is it to stand up to skin-heads?
The theory of planned behaviour uses attitudes towards behaviours to predicts behaviour,
whereas the original problem was to link attitude towards objects to behaviours
The theory of planned behaviour neglects some additional influences on behaviour. For
example, automated behaviour (habits) may reflect neither attitudes nor social norms
Assumes conscious control
- The associative network metaphor
- All the information about a specific subject (e.g. affirmative action) is contained in one node.
- The summary evaluation about the subject (+or-) is contained in another node, but it is connected to
the subject node.
- The strength of the association between the subject node and the summary evaluation node
determines attitude accessibility. 6
Strength of Associations
- if there is a weak association between the subject and the summary evaluation, then the attitude will
not be accessible. Hence, it will not influence behaviour
- when attitudes are expressed many times, a strong association develops between the summary
evaluation and the subject. If there is a strong association between the two nodes, then spreading
occurs quickly from one node to the other.
- In this case, the evaluation (or attitude) is very accessible and can influence behaviour.
- Response latency has been used as a measure of accessibility. How long does it take for someone to
divulge their opinions?
- Election study
Measured the time it took for participants to answer a question about their voting intentions.
The participants’ response latencies were divided into high accessibility (faster scores) and
low accessibility (slower scores)
- An attitude can determine behaviour only when it is accessible. Based on the results of this study, the
more accessible an opinion is, the more likely it will influences one’s behaviour. 7
LECTURE 6: ATTITUDES: ACCESIBILITY & AUTOMATICITY
Perception and attitudes
- Perception is “constructive”: depends not only on what’s out there but also on how one processes it,
determinants of how one processes information are often outside awareness.
- Attitudes may play a part in the construction or be constructed themselves.
Accessibility and Self-reports (Schwarz et al. 1991)
- recall 6 or 12 examples of own assertive (positive) behaviour
- participants then rate their own assertiveness
- participants who rated 12 thought of themselves as been less assertive, while those who though 6
thought of themselves as being more assertive? WHY? Because thinking of 6 is easier than thinking
- recently activated information is accessible
- this accessible information affects interpretation of other information
the Donald study (Srull and Wyer, 1979)
step 1: scrambled sentences task. Words either related to hostility (e.g. her he bit
kicked) or not
step 2: read paragraph about “Donald” and form judgements about him
conclusions: participants who were not primed viewed no difference in aggressiveness
immediately or 24 hours later in terms of aggressiveness; participants who were given
20% hostile words, views Donald to be aggressive, while the participants who were
given mostly hostile words in step one, saw Donald as a extremely negative person
who is very very aggressive immediately and after 24 hours.
Automatic effect on social Judgement (Bargh & Peitromonaco, 1982)
- also did the Donald study
- results: the greater the percentage of hostile words during the priming, the more negatively they rated
Chronic Accessibility = Attitude?
- Different concepts are simply more accessible than others
- Different associations are stronger than others
- Concepts (attitudes ) can automatically activate
Non- dimensional Model (Fazio)
- Attitudes objects are nodes in an associative network
- Attitudes are associations between an object and an evaluation
- More frequently the link is activated, the stronger the attitude.
Links in memory (associative networks)
- Can think of an attitude as the association in memory between an attitude object and a stored
- Each time the attitude is activated, the link gets stronger.
Models of Representation
- Associative network models
concepts are connected to each other presumably in the nervous system as well
when one concept is activated this activation spreads to other concepts to which it is
- Parallel-constraint models
connections can not only lead to activation they can also lead to inhibition
when a concept is activated enervation is spread around along these links until a stable state
- Parellel distributed processing (connectionist) models
―True‖ attitude structure. 9
Properties of Connectionist Models
- Pattern completion is an important one for attitudes and attitude activation
- Different concepts share parts of the pattern (elements are reused throughout the network)
Automatic activation of attitudes
- What is automatic processing?
- Typical answers:
Sequential Priming Studies
Association AUTOMATICALLY speeds responding to the second stimulus. Nurse-Doctor;
Bread Butter VS. Nurse-Butter; Bread-Doctor
Evaluative priming studies
Sequential Priming Studies
Association AUTOMATICALLy speeds responding to the second stimulus
Positive-positive; negative-negative vs. positive-negative; negative- positive 10
- Participants first made good-bad judgements about words.
- Computer recorded speed; fastest responses are “strong attitudes”; slowest responses are “weak
- Brought back for the evaluative priming task, using strong and weak, positive and negative stimuli as
Is evaluative context necessary?
- Could it be that automatic evaluative effects only occur when in an “evaluative frame”
- Task require evaluative (good-bad) judgements
- Pronunciation task
Simply pronounce the second word
What do automatic attitudes do?
- Automatically evaluate the environment
- Bias perception
- Provide a filter on a complex world
Orienting values of attitudes (Rosko- Ewoldsen & Fazio)
- Objects towards which individuals hold highly accessible attitudes should attract more attention than
- Two tasks (counterbalanced)
Participants looked at a group of objects
Participants decided whether the objects were good or bad.
- Asked which ones they remember seeing
The cost of Accessible attitudes (fazio et al)
- Hypothesis: participants with more accessible attitudes will have more difficulty detecting changes in
- Saw photos : either rehearsed their attitude or control task (height judgement)
- The morphed the original photos into new ones
- How long does it take to detect change?
Evaluative Conditioning Automatic Attitudes (Olson and Fazio)
- Participants played a game pretending to be guards
- Job was to watch for deviant behaviour
- They were to look for certain “items”
- Occasionally, a Pokémon character was paired with an item
- some Pokémon with positive stimuli and some with negative stimuli
- after playing the guard game, participants completed a priming task
- pokemon served as subliminal primes 11
- Conditioning was evident in that participants responded more quickly to target words whose valence
matched that of the valenced words that had been earlier paired with the now subliminally-primed
Automatic vs. Controlled Processing
- Varied the SAO (the time between the onset of the prime and the onset of the target ) : 0ms, 150ms,
- The more time available, the more time for conscious/controlled processing.
When fair is foul and foul is fair (Glaser & Banaji)
- Extremity biases the effects of primes
- Assimilation and contrast effects
- What about motivation?
Implicit and Explicit Attitudes
- In the memory literature:
- “introspectively unidentified (or inaccurately identified) traces of past experience that mediate
feeling, thought, or action”
- Fully dissociated
Should be no relationship between implicit and explicit attitudes
Based on an association model
- Association work according to balance theory
Attitudes or Cultural Associations (Karpinski and Hilton)
- Could explicit attitudes be “real” attitudes, and “implicit attitudes” just be information picked up
from the environment?
- Proposed the “environmental association model”
- Meta-analysis has shown that implicit measures do predict behaviour
- Implicit and explicit are more highly correlated than previously thought
- Difference in process or representation ? 12
Lecture 7: CONSISTENCY THEORIES AND BEHAVIOUR PREDICTING ATTITUDE
- Attitude statement: materialism is bad! But goes on and buys a new BMW! How do you feel?
- Humans strive for consistency
- When beliefs do not match from each other:
Unpleasant : when you are called inconsistent, when you feel yourself being inconsistent
DO NOT WANT TO FEEL LIKE A HYPOCRITE!
Features of Consistency Theories
- Common features of consistency theories
Describes the conditions for equilibrium and disequilibrium of cognitions
Asserts that disequilibrium motivates a person to restore consistency.
Describes procedures by which equilibrium can be restored.
Gestalt Influence (Fritz Heider)
- Inspired by gestalt psychology
Visual perception is driven by principles of good form such as symmetry
Social relations also achieve good forms: BALANCE
- Heider focused on situation containing 3 elements (triads):
1. A person (P)
2. An other person (O)
3. And an attitude object (X)
- There were two possible types of relationships between the elements: positive or negative. This
resulted in eight possible triads. 13
- Example: P dislikes something but O likes something
- To resolve inconsistency: P might do the following: try to persuade O to change his or her attitude
(often used among friends) OR starts disliking O, or remove one of the elements in the triad (e.g.
end the friendship or have no attitude ).
- It is also possible for P to split his or her feelings into more than one realm: P like O as a tennis as a
tennis partner, but dislikes his or her opinion on abortion, so P plays tennis with O but avoids talking
about abortion with O.
Attraction and agreement effects (Zajonc)
- Suggested that both attraction between the two people in the triad and attitude agreement are
- A triad is only rated as pleasant when there is both attraction and agreement
- Look at slides above: based on Zajonc’s theory, the first and second triads would be rated as most
pleasant – the data supports this theory
- It appears that balance is a necessary condition for harmony, it is not a sufficient condition!
- Congruity theory allows for the gradation of relationships between elements (somewhat +, somewhat
- Based on situations where a source (communicator) makes an assertion (+ or -) about a concept
- Like balance theory, it defined where there is congruity and how to go about the re-establishing
congruity when there isn’t.
suppose that Wayne Gretzky (source) does a commercial for Bigelow’s green tea (concept) in
which he states that it is a good product (assertion)
You like Wayne Gretzky, but you do not like green tea.
Suppose your prior attitude towards green tea what somewhat negative (-1), and that your
prior attitude towards Gretzky was very positive (+3). Since he is endorsing the tea, the
assertion was positive.
Formula: the formula predicts attitude change based on a person’s attitude to the shource and
the target (attitude object )
THE FORMULA: R = |A |*(A ) + (d)*|A |*(A )
o o o s s
|A o + |As| |A o + |As|
R s R (do
Ro- point of resolution for object d- direction of assertion (no gradation)
Rs- point of resolution for source
Ao- prior attitude towards object
As- prior attitude towards source. 14
from the formula you get a “2”: this means that your attitude towards tea will change from
somewhat negative to moderately positive and towards Gretzky will change from very
positive to moderately positive.
- Cognitions are either relevant to irrelevant to one another.
- If relevant they are either: consistent or inconsistent
- Inconsistency between two cognitions produces an unpleasant state (dissonance)
- People are motivated to reduce displeasure, hence they are motivated to make the conflicting
Feelings the discomfort of dissonance
Attribute the cause of this to their behaviours and attitudes
- When will people have these conditions?
- What happens when these are present?
- What happens when they are not?
Dealing with Dissonance:
- Easiest way? Change one of the cognitions!
- Example from Festinger
Smokers learn that smoking is bad for health
Add consonant cognition
Belief-disconfirmation paradigm: Festinger, Riecken and Schachter (1956)
- Studied a group that believed a prophecy that a flood would engulf the continent
- It was supposedly transmitted by being from outer space to a woman in the group
- The group members also believed that they had been chosen to be saved from the flood and be
evacuated in a flying saucer
- What would happen when the flood didn’t happen?
- Member s of the group who were alone at the time did not maintain their beliefs
- Member who were waiting with other group members maintained their faith
- The woman reported receiving a message that indicated that the flood had been prevented by God
because of groups existence as a force for good!
- Before the disconfirmation of the belief about the flood, the group engaged in little proselytizing 15
- After the disconfirmation, they engaged in substantial proselytizing
- The group member sought to persuade other of their beliefs which would add cognition consonant
with those beliefs.
Aronson and Calsmith (1963)
- Children were forbidden to play with a favourite toy with mild and severe threats
- Even the mild threats were sufficient to discourage all children from playing with the favourite toy.
- Subsequent attitude rating showed that mild threats produced a stronger negative change in attitudes
towards the toy.
- Children committed to the behaviour of not playing with the toy
- Strong threat is sufficient justification for the behaviour, but mild threat was insufficient
- To “close the gap” between behaviour and its explanation, children derogate the toy (it wasn’t that
much fun anyways)
Gerard and Mathewson (1986)
- Examined dissonance in the context of initiation rituals
- Seemingly, the best fraternities have the most severe initiation rituals
- Dissonance theory explains this relation as a result of insufficient justification
- Explanation :
participants received mild or strong electric shocks
electric shock was administered either as part of an initiation ritual to participate in a group
discussion or as a separate experiment
participants attitudes towards the (actually boring) group discussion were assessed.
Milk shock for the initiation and unrelated, the attitude remained approximately the same
But for severe shock, the attitude for initiation was VERY HIGH, and for unrelated, it was
- Festinger and Calsmith original study
- Participants were paid $1 or $20 to lie to another student about the desirability of a boring
experiment that they just completed
- Subsequently, their attitudes towards the experiment was assessed
- $1 very more likely to do it again than the 20 ones, because of their justification that if they did it for
a dollar then they must like it! 16
Post Decisional Dissonance
- Approach-approach conflict
- Choosing between alternatives can produce dissonance when each alternative has some desirable
aspect that the other alternative does not have
- After a choice, people may enhance the chosen alternative and/or derogate the rejected alternative to
- Student ranked 8 household appliances according to their desirability (1-8 scale)
- After rating, given a choice between 2 products as a gift for participation
- The choice
Group A: choose between self-rated 3 and 6 : easy
Group B: Choose between self-rated 5 and 6: hard
- Then repeated the rating again
- The rejected one for difficult choice, the attitude went down A LOT. But for easy choice, it remained
pretty much normal because the decision wasn’t so hard to make!
most theories assume that attitudes influence behaviour
Cognitive dissonance theory predicts that our behaviour also influence our attitudes.
Self-perception theory (Bem (1971))
- Self-perception theory provides an alternative explanation for cognitive dissonance effects. (LOOK
at what you do in a situation: that must be my attitude)!
- For example Festinger and Calsmith experiment where people were paid either one for tenty follars
cognitive dissonance theory says that people felt bad about lying for $1 because they could
not justify the act so they came to like it
self-perception takes an observers view, concluding that those who were paid $1 must have
really enjoyed it (because $1 does not justify the act) whilst those who were paid $20 were
just doing it for the money!
Fazio, Zanna, & Cooper
- both theories are correct, but apply under different “boundary” conditions
- Dissonance theory
initial attitude is strong, and person acts in ways clearly inconsistent with it
“hot” processes mediate (tension reduction)
Initial attitude is weak OR person acts in ways not radically inconsistent with attitude
“Cold” processes mediate (logical inference) 17
Does cognitive dissonance require a memory of one’s choice?
- Discounting alternatives paradigm
- Select one, reject one
- Do you need to remember selecting or rejecting ?
- Or does it discounting occur automatically, perhaps at the time of making the choice?
- What would amnesics do?
- Lieberman, Oshsner, Gilbers & Schacter
made choices about paintings
asked which pair of painting they’d choose to hand in their house
pairs made up of previously low and high together
re-rate all paintings
the rating for unwanted prints went up from -0.15 to +0.08 and decreased for wanted printed
from +2.33 to +1.98 18
Lecture 8: Prejudice! Origin of stereotypes
- when an attitude object fits a category we react based on the general attitude (can have sub
- the categorization could be wrong! (negative consequence); belief about members of the category are
wrong- they cause one to treat all members of the category the same
Social categorization and consequences
- categorization based on perceived groups in society
- apply to social situations and in particular to social groups
- the components of these attitudes can influence numerous aspects of everyday interation
- people have a strong tendency to divide other people into categories
- do this to facilitates social interactions
- has the potential to have adverse effects
- problem? We form these categorizations largely automatically and use them in the same way
- leads to – stem from social categorization people make to ease knowledge assimilation and decision
making in potentially complex situation and these attitudes are related to subsequent behaviour
ABC’s of attitudes
- Affect (emotions), behaviour, and cognition (beliefs)
- ABC’s of out-group attitudes !!
- Cognitive schemas that allow for …
- Example: all wallonians are stupid….can lead to bias…which can lead to discrimination
- Activation is automatic
- Everyone has similar knowledge of these stereotypes
- BUT , just because people have knowledge of stereotypes doesn’t mean they endorse them…but they
can still effect you if you are not careful
- The …
- Example: I hate all wallinians because all wallonians are stupid
- Certainly leads to bias…which could lead to discrimination 19
- treating wallonians badly just because they’re a wallonian but not because of any individual reason
- the essential feature of attitude is a preparation or readiness for response…not behaviour, but the
PRECONDITION OF BEHAVIOUR
- so in outgroup attitudes, _____, which can be caused by stereotypes of prejudices) is the
PRECONDITION for discrimination.
Influences of bias
- how we perceive the world
- biases have influence at many steps along the way to decision making
- encoding, combining information
- expectation and beliefs
- belief perseverance
- Assumed people were…… 20
The cognitive Miser
- Reservation that people were always in conscious control of their thoughts
- People often acting mindlessly in their behaviour and decision making
- Reacting using habit and heuristics based on situation learned from past behaviour
- People have…
- Engaging in effortful thought all the time would use up (cognitive load?)
- Necessary to strategically use mental resources
- Resulting in? relying on simplifying techniques such as ……
- Conserving limited resources
- Focusing on intentional use for important matters
- Normally respond spontaneously
- can switch to deliberate when important
- 1980s; decision making was no longer believed to a strategic choice, instead an unintentional ,
- The mere presence of a representative of a group or even mention of the group is thought to activate
the stereotype of that group
- Unavoidable consequence of ordinary categorization
Inevitability of prejudice
- Activated automatically and inescapably from memory on the mere observation or mention of the
- These evaluation can be activated without intent
- Not necessarily to level of conscious awareness
- But is activated to a level that will influence perception
- Whether conscious or not, the mere activation of the stereotype inevitably affects thought ad
- Research overestimated the ability to control automatically activated stereotypes- and therefore
underestimated the impact of these stereotypes on social interactions.
- Scenario…….. 21
Two factor theories and return to control
- Compelling argument that intentional control is possibility
- But the control was not theoretically different
- Must be aware of influence stereotypes
- Must have motivation and ability control decision making
- Stereotype activation and stereotype application may be two distinct components
- Study 1
Participants list all the black stereotypes they knew of in north American culture, regardless
of their own endorsement.
Results revealed ____ semantic knowledge of black stereotypes, regardless or personal ___
- Study 2
subliminally primed participants with both black category and black stereotypic traits
the category primes were social categories that should _______the black stereotypic traits,
words like Blacks _____
the trait primes were words _____the black category prime, words like poor, lazy and
Primed condition: 80% words stereotypical of African American
Low primes: 20% words
Read paragraph about Donald and form judgements about him
80% words participants showed more hostility towards Donald compared too those who got
- Study 3
Allowed for conscious decision making
Replication of the first study
Then asked them how much they endorsed the stereotypes
With time to react ( and therefore potentially control their responses)
The low prejudice participants endorsed more _______
High prejudiced participants endorsed ____
Stereotype knowledge is widespread and does not differ between high and low prejudice
With motivation (in this case internal prejudice level) the activated stereotypes can be controlled
so as to not affect explicit endorsement
Criticisms of two component theory
- How often could these conditions could be met in the real world?
- Must acknowledge unconscious influence
- Must have the motivation and ability to control it
- Need enough time and the cognitive resources
- Need to know what the unconscious activation was to be able to correct for it 22
- Lepore and brown and fazio, have shown that automatic activation of stereotype does not occur the
same for everyone, despite common culture, and even though individuals appear to possess similar
semantic knowledge of the stereotypes.
Stereotypes should be like any other attitude
- The more activated it is (the stronger it gets?)
- Overtime, with motivation, you can consciously strengthen good automatic judgement and weaken
negative automatic judgements,
What about devine study 2?
- The use to negative stereotypes as primes by the low prejudiced participants in devine’s second study
might not actually occurred- there was a potential confound apparent, and another explanation
Lepore and brown
- Replication devine with a key addition
- Looked at….
- Replicated results
- Both high and low prejudiced participants had similar semantic knowledge of black stereotypes.
- High prejudice participants formed a more negative and less positive impression of the pargets
- low prejudice participants…
- gives credence to the idea that….
- Direct replication of devine’s study 2
Speed of stereotype activation
- If stereotype activation is being controlled after activation then a subliminal prime, at an unconscious
level of awareness should result in the same stereotype activation in both high and low prejudiced
Kawakami, Dion, and Dovidio
- Primed high and low prejudice participants with category activation
- Had to pronounce a target word after the prime was presented
- Prediction: the prime facilitates pronunciation of positive or negative stereotypic traits words
depending on the prejudice level of the participant