PSY322 MT Notes.docx

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Heather V.Fritzley

L1 INTERGROUP RELATIONSGordon Allport 1954 The Nature of Prejudice th Gordon Allport 1954 is one of the best known social psychologists of the 20 century Argued that prejudice includes 2 things1 attitude of favourdisfavour 2 overgeneralized erroneous beliefContemporary psychologists disagree w the erroneous beliefthe beliefs are not necessarily erroneousoBeliefs stereotypes are separate from the affective attitudes prejudicebehaviour discrimination towards othersStereotypesCategorization us versus them ingroups vs outgroupsWhat are stereotypesBeliefs about the attributes behschars of a groupits membersWhat are the key features of stereotypesCome from surrounding cultureshared beliefsCan be accurateinaccuratekernel of truth to stereotypes might be some accuracy to stereotypesCan be descriptive what chars group members will haveprescriptive what chars members ought to haveCan be pos or neg Is stereotyping necessarily a bad thing Humans categorize everything to cut down info processingstereotyping isnt bad what you do w it is Racial Stereotypes in Encyclopedia BritannicaBefore the US civil rights movement reached its peak the entry for Races of Mankind relied on centuriesold pseudoscientific stereotypes of Black peopleIn its 1964 edition the encyclopedia described woollyhaired groups as havingoDark skin sometimes almost black broad noses usually a rather small brain in relation to their size especially among the taller members of the group with forearms and shins proportionately long In the skeleton there is a smoothness of contour which even in adults often recalls the bony form of a child and among some members of the group the forehead has that prominent and smooth form which is so characteristic of the infant of our own race Buxton 1964 p 864APrejudice The affectiveemotional reaction to another person of a particular group or to the group itself is separate from beliefs stereotypes What is prejudice Affective evaluative reaction toward a groupits membersEvaluations stem from reactions to the general social categoryPeople can hold both negative and positive attitudes toward a social groupWhy do most people focus on the dark side neg atts of prejudiceThats where problems liethats what needs to be fixedPrejudice is more related to discriminationbut not by a v big correlation Evaluations tend to come from gut reactionsoutside of our conscious awarenessWhere does prejudice originate fromoIdea that another group is a threat to your ownoBelieve other group interfering w own groups goalsoIdea that another group is diff from ownoDont like another group but must have direct personal contact w themoPersonality traits eg rightwing authoritarianismRightwing authoritarians believe must follow authority tend to be conventional in their thinkingpeople who consider themselves unprejudiced can hold negative attitudes toward outgroupsoPossibility of not being aware ImplicitoInstead of hostility andor hate the feelings of these people tend to be discomfort or uneaseothese feelings still affect behaviourHow do these people who claim that they are not prejudiced feel when they act on these unconscious stereotypesoIf it is pointed out to them they dont want to beh that wayDoes level of prejudice depend on the contexts in which a person deals with members of the stereotyped outgroupoContext mattersDiscrimination What is discrimination Differential treatment based on group membershipPeople tend to always think of discrimination in negative termscan it be positiveAffirmative action can be viewed as pos but many ppl think discrimination is always neg Vast majority of the research focuses on the negative sideHow can discrimination be viewedoIn terms of Individual behaviour institutional policies and practices and cultural valuesLevels of Discrimination1 Interpersonal DiscriminationWhat is interpersonal discrimination From one person to anotherindividual basisWhat can interpersonal discrimination result from Stereotypic beliefs evaluations prejudice or both2 Organizational Discrimination Discrimination at the organizational levelgovernment agencies in the workplace etcOccurs when the practices rules and policies of formal organizations like corporations or government agencies have discriminatory outcomes BenokraitisFeagin 1995 p 44Can occur in many waysbut more obvious when it comes to racial and gender discrimination that still exist in workplaceoEg genderwage gapGraph on p 14 of text 3 Institutional discriminationWhat is institutional discrimination Discrimination within institutionsfam education religion etcIs it overt or subtle SubtleWhat is an example of institutional discriminationSegregation forcing students to buy uniforms prevents fams in poverty from going to school etcthJanuary 14 1963Governor of Alabama George Wallace was quoted as saying oI draw the line in the dust and toss the gauntlet before the feet of tyranny and I say segregation now segregation tomorrow segregation forever 4 Cultural discriminationWhat is cultural discrimination Discrimination thats put into our surrounding culturenorms dictates whats goodbadThe dominant group establishes and maintains dominance by rewarding those who follow them and punishing those who do notWhat is the result of thisoGroups that dont go along w the norms are marginalizedWhat is an example of cultural discriminationoTreatment of first nations in CanadaLegislative policy may formally endorse cultural discriminationeg treatment of Native CanadiansCultural discrimination like institutional discrimination is hard to detectsubtle How do stereotyping prejudice and discrimination relate to one anotherThe relationship between the three can be very complicated
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